Mishnah/Seder Zeraim/Tractate Berakhot/Chapter 3/2
Seder Zeraim, Tractate Berakhot: Chapter 3, Mishnah 2
|Translation is public domain and by the contributors of the Open Mishnah Project.|
Having discussed the mourners and the pall bearers, the mishnah turns to discussing other funeral attendees. Some are exempt from reciting the Shema, some are not.
Hebrew Text 
- קָבְרוּ אֶת הַמֵּת וְחָזְרוּ,
- אִם יְכוֹלִין לְהַתְחִיל וְלִגְמֹר עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַגִּיעוּ לַשּׁוּרָה – יַתְחִילוּ,
- וְאִם לָאו – לֹא יַתְחִילוּ.
- הָעוֹמְדִים בַּשּׁוּרָה:
- הַפְּנִימִים – פְּטוּרִין,
- וְהַחִיצוֹנִים – חַיָּבִין.
English Translation 
- He who buries the dead and comes back,
- If he can start and finish before returning to the line, he starts,
- If not, he does not start.
- As for those standing in a row,
- The internal ones, they are exempt.
- The external ones, they are obligated.
Buries the dead and comes back: After the burial, people would pass by the grave and then stand in two sets of rows facing each-other. The mourner or mourners would then pass between the rows to receive comfort from the attendees. "Buries the dead and comes back" thus refers to the people standing in these lines, after they have passed the grave but before they have taken their places in line.
Starts: That is, starts reciting the Shema.
Internal ones: That is, the ones who are in the first row, close to the mourner. They are exempt because if they were reciting the Shema the mourner or mourners would notice and would feel uneasy for not saying it.
External ones: That is, the ones that are not in the first row. As the mourner or mourners cannot see them directly and thus would not be discomforted by their recital of the Shema, they are obligated to recite.