Mishnah/Seder Zeraim/Tractate Peah/Chapter 7
- For every olive tree that there is in the field,
- Even if the olives drip on in its season, and he forgets,
- This is not forgotten.
- On what did they say this?
- On that which is known for its produce and is in a known place.
- “On that which is known” – a known rich olive tree or dry olive tree, or if it produces a great amount.
- “And is in a known place” – If it stands near a wine press or near a fence.
- And for the rest of all the olive trees, if one forgets two, they are forgotten,
- But if three, they are not forgotten.
- R’ Yosi said, “Olives cannot be forgotten.”
- An olive tree that was found standing between three rows of two rectangles,
- If he forgets it, it is not forgotten.
- An olive tree that has two Seah on it, and he forgets it, it is not forgotten.
- On what did they say this?
- When it was not the season to start picking, but if the picking begun,
- Even if the olives drip like in its season, and he forgets it, this is forgotten.
- All times that there exists produce under it, this is for the owner.
- R’ Meir says, “This is only when the produce searcher has given up.”
- What is a single grape?
- One that fell in the season of the grape harvest.
- If one was harvesting grapes, and he was cutting clusters of grapes that were entangled in leaves,
- And they fell from his hand to the earth, and they were made into single grapes,
- Indeed, this belongs to the master of the house.
- If one leaves a basket under the vine, in the season that he harvests grapes,
- Indeed, he is openly stealing from the poor.
- On this it is said, “Do not withdraw your eternal boarders.” (Proverbs 22:28)
- What are grape gleanings?
- All that isn’t a shoulder (a single bunch on a single twig)
- And not a drop (a grape on the stalk).
- If there is a shoulder or a drop, it belongs to the master of the house.
- If there is a doubt, it belongs to the poor.
- If grape gleanings that are on the knee (the joint between branches or the stem and the trunk) are harvested with the cluster,
- Indeed, it belongs to the master of the house.
- And if not, indeed, they belong to the poor.
- For a single piece, R’ Yehuda says, “It is a cluster.”
- And the Sages say, “It is a grape gleaning.”
- One who prunes the vines may prune his as he prunes the ones for the poor.
- These are the words of R’ Yehuda.
- R’ Meir says, “He has permission for his, but does not have permission for those of the poor.”
- For a vineyard in its fourth (year, Leviticus 19:23-25),
- The school of Shammai says, “There is no fifth on it, and there is no sabbatical removal."
- And the school of Hillel says, “It has them.”
- The school of Shammai says, “It is obligated in single grapes and in grape gleanings, and the poor redeem for themselves.”
- And the school of Hillel says, “It is all for the wine press.”
- If a vineyard consists entirely of grape gleanings,
- R’ Eliezer says, “It is for the master of the house.”
- R’ Akiva says, “It is for the poor.”
- R’ Eliezer said, “’Because you harvest, you don’t glean.’ (Deuteronomy 24:21)
- If you don’t harvest, where do the gleanings come from?”
- R’ Akiva said to him, “And your vineyard is not gleaned by you (Leviticus 19:10),
- Even if it is entirely gleanings.
- If so, why does it say ‘because you harvest you don’t glean’?
- This is for the poor who glean before the harvest.”
- For one dedicates his vineyard, if it was not known to him that there were gleanings, they are gleanings for the poor.
- If it was known to him that there were gleanings, they are gleanings of the poor.
- R’ Yosi says, “He gives a payment of their worth to the Temple treasury.”
- What is forgotten on a trellis?
- Anything that he was unable to take by stretching out his arm.
- If on runners, when he advanced away from there.