Narrative Of The United States Expedition To The River Jordan And The Dead Sea

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Narrative Of The United States Expedition To The River Jordan And The Dead Sea
by William Francis Lynch
Transcribed by William Maury Morris II.

NARRATIVE OF THE UNITED STATES’ EXPEDITION TO THE RIVER JORDAN AND THE DEAD SEA

BY

WILLIAM FRANCIS LYNCH, U. S. N., COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION,

William Francis Lynch wmm.jpg



WITH MAPS AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS


PHILADELPHIA: LEA AND BLANCHARD

1849


THIS NARRATIVE IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED

TO

JOHN YOUNG MASON,

EX-SECRETARY OF THE NAVY,

AS

A SLIGHT TRIBUTE TO HIS PRIVATE WORTH AND PUBLIC EXCELLENCE.

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1849, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the United States, for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Printed By T. K. and P. G. Collins.


PREFACE.

THE object of the Expedition, the narrative of which is here presented, was unknown to the public, until a very short time prior to its departure from the United States, when the indications were such as to induce me to apprehend that it was not appreciated. Nevertheless, I had an abiding faith in the ultimate issue, which cheered me on; for I felt that a liberal and enlightened community would not long condemn an attempt to explore a distant river, and its wondrous reservoir, the first, teeming with sacred associations, and the last, enveloped in a mystery, which had defied all previous attempts to penetrate it.

As soon as possible after our return, I handed in my official report, and, at the same time, asked permission to publish a narrative or diary, of course embracing much, necessarily elicited by visiting such interesting scenes, that would be unfit for an official paper. To this application, I was induced by hearing of the proposed publication of a Narrative of the Expedition, said to be by a member of the party. The permission asked, was granted by the Hon. John Young Mason, Secretary of the Navy, with the remark, “I give this assent with the more pleasure, because I do not think that you should be anticipated by any other, who had not the responsibility of the enterprise.”

Feeling that what may be said on the subject had better be rendered imperfectly by myself than by another, I have been necessarily hurried; and the reader will decide whether the narrative which follows was elaborately prepared, or written currente calamo. To E. Robinson, D. D., of the Union Theological Seminary, New York, I was indebted for letters to his friends in Beïrût, and for much information furnished from his copious store. I have also to thank Professor Haldeman, of Columbia, Pa., for some valuable suggestions, which I adopted.

To Mr. Stephens, of New York, the author of one of the most interesting books of travels which our language can produce, I return, in this public manner, my acknowledgments for a timely letter, written when the equipment of the Expedition was under consideration.

While I am responsible for everything here advanced, it is proper to say, that I have occasionally used the notes of other members of the Expedition; and am particularly indebted to Mr. Bedlow, who accompanied the land party down the valley of the Jordan. The drawings are by Lieutenant John B. Dale and Passed-Midshipman Richard Aulick, some of them complete, and some outline sketches. To Messrs. Gilbert and Gihon, of this city, who undertook the illustrations, I am indebted for the beautiful wood-engravings which accompany the volume. They are all true to nature; each scene was taken upon the spot it was intended to delineate, and every portrait is a likeness.

The maps were prepared by Mr. F. D. Stuart, of Washington, from copies furnished by. Mr. Aulick, from the labours of Lieut. Dale and himself.

Through fatigue, privation and sickness, the officers and men of the Expedition acquitted themselves manfully; and the only drawback to our grateful recollections is, that one who shared our labours has not been spared to participate in the gratification of our return. Lieutenant Dale was an able and accomplished officer, and, by his death, the profession has been shorn of one of its proudest ornaments. His wife has since followed him to the grave; but, in his name, he has left a rich inheritance to his children. I am wholly unskilled in author-craft, and have sought rather to convey correct ideas, than to mould harmonious sentences. I send this forth, therefore, in trepidation, yet with a confiding trust in that charitable construction which the people of this country have never denied to any one who honestly does his best.


LIST OF THE MEMBERS OF THE EXPEDITION.

W. F. LYNCH, Lieutenant-Commanding.
JOHN B. DALE, Lieutenant.
R. AULICK, Passed-Midshipman.
FRANCIS E. LYNCH, Charged Herbarium.
JOSEPH C. THOMAS, Master’s Mate.
GEORGE OVERSTOCK, Seaman.
FRANCIS WILLIAMS,
CHARLES HOMER,
HUGH READ,
JOHN ROBINSON,
GILBERT LEE,
GEORGE LOCKWOOD,
CHARLES ALBERTSON,
HENRY LOVELAND,

HENRY BEDLOW, Esq., and HENRY J. ANDERSON, M. D., were associated with the Expedition as volunteers, after its original organization, the first at Constantinople, and the other at Beïrût. More zealous, efficient, and honourable associates could not have been desired. They were ever in the right place, bearing their full share of watching and privation. To the skill of Mr. Bedlow, the wounded seaman was indebted for the preservation of his life; and words are inadequate to express how in sickness, forgetful of himself, he devoted all his efforts to the relief of his sick companions.



CHAPTER I. — INTRODUCTION.

Application to the Navy Department — Favourable result — Vessel designated — Preparations — Metallic boats — Selection of men — Officers — Orders for departure — Instructions for the Expedition — Detention of the ship — Time employed in various preparations — Water-bags — Boats, and the means of their transportation.


CHAPTER II. — FROM NEW YORK TO PORT MAHON.

Sail from New York — Pleasing anticipations — Currents and gales — The Azores — Trafalgar — Strait of Gibraltar — The Mediterranean — St. Roque — Algesiras — View of Gibraltar — Aspect of the town — Defences — Character of the population — Fort St. Philip — A rash vow — Retrospect — A disappointment — Small-pox on board — Port Mahon — Its disadvantages — Balearic Isles — Celtic Ruins


CHAPTER III. — FROM PORT MAHON TO SMYRNA.

Departure from Mahon — Arrival at Valetta — Pleasing incident — Leave — Malta — Enter the Egean Sea — View of the shores of Greece — Reflections — Oriental scenes — Smyrna — Turkish women — Aspect of Smyrna — Turkish cemeteries — Punishment of crime — Its necessity — Revolting execution — Environs of Smyrna — Fertility of the soil — An excursion — A Turkish garden — Beautiful scene — The Jannissaries


CHAPTER IV. — FROM SMYRNA TO CONSTANTINOPLE.

Embarkation for Constantinople — Motley group — Morning devotions — Shores of Greece — The Hellespont — Classic associations — Sestos — A fop on board — A Turkish effendi — Dardanelles — A disappointment — Constantinople — Beautiful scene — Tophana — Turkish ladies — Caiques — Harbour of Constantinople — Minarets — An American resident — Improvements in agriculture — Slavery in Turkey — The Negro race — The slave-market — Kind reception — Excursion up the Bosphorus — Scenery — The Black Sea — Tomb of Joshua — Superstition — Magnificent view — Probability of invasion by Russia — Servile condition of the Turkish women — Blessings of Christianity


CHAPTER V. — CONSTANTINOPLE, AND VOYAGE TO SYRIA.

Visit to the Sultan — Pipes and coffee — Disputed point of etiquette — Servility of the officers —Presence of the Sultan — Sad reflections — Offer of a present — The American minister — Visit to the mosques — The Hippodrome — Call of the Muezzins — Tomb of Sultan Mahmoud — Turkish reforms — Subterranean cisterns — Bazaars — Bargaining — Women in public — Visit of the Sultan to the mosque — His appearance — The barracks — The Seraglio — Hall of ambassadors — Armory — Stables — Cemeteries — Variety of costumes — Environs of the city — Excursion up the Bosphorus — Barbarossa’ tomb — Cemetery of Scutari — Dancing dervishes — Necessity of religion — St. Stefano — Visit Dr. Davis — Village dignitaries — Receive our firman — Embarkation — Rejoin the “Supply” — Leave Smyrna — Gale — Scio — Riding on a rail — Ruins of Ephesus — Ayasalouk — Church of St. John — “Bishop’s Palace” — The river Meander — Visit to the Governor — Visit returned — Greek fashionables — Seals Nuova — Patmos — Cos — Lunar rainbow — Candia — Rhodes — Cyprus — Mountains of Lebanon


CHAPTER VI. — FROM BEÏRÛT TO DEPARTURE — FROM ST. JEAN D’ACRE.

Beïrût — Visit to the Pasha — Preparations — Peculiar costume — Departure — Sidon and Tyre — St. Jean d’Acre — Mount Carmel — Dangerous landing — Extensive view — Convent of Mount Carmel — Grotto of Elias — Boats landed and tents pitched — Thieving — First night ashore — Arab horses — Brook Kishon — Akka — Visit to the American Consul — Appearance of the town — A drawback to personal charms — Governor of Acre — A conference — Difficulties — Arab curiosity — Audience at the palace — Singular mode of begging — ’Akil Aga — Attempt at extortion — Meeting with American travelers — Exciting reports — Deliberations — Troublesome visitors — Etiquette — Sherîf of Mecca — Camels used for draught — Delays — Beautiful mirage — Letter to Dr. Anderson


CHAPTER VII. — FROM ST. JEAN D’ACRE TO DEPARTURE FROM THE SEA OF GALILEE.

Disappointments — Effrontery of Said Bey — Journey continued — Plain of Acre — Village of Abelin —Doubts and mistrust — Character of the village and surrounding country — Inhospitable reception — Embarrassing position — Relief — Arab morals — An escort — Blowing Valley — Picturesque views — Khan el Dielil — Castle of Sefurieh — Nazareth — Reflections — Mode of dealing among the Arabs — Equestrian exercises — Difficulties of the road — Turan — Mount Tabor — Meet Dr. Anderson — An Arab Repast — Music — Lubieh — Character of the country — Magnificent scenery — The Sea of Galilee — Thrilling emotions — Safed — Joseph’s Well — Tiberias — Reception — Visits from and to the Governor — Administration of justice — Thraldom of the Jews — Chapel of St. Peter — Jewish Synagogues — Habits and costume of the Jewish females — Letters from Jerusalem — Firman from the Pasha — Express from Acre — Launch of the boats — Profound emotion — Hot baths — Ruins of Tiberias — Productions of the plain — Excursion on the lake — Genesareth — Mejdel, or Magdala — Fish — Discouraging accounts of the Jordan — Filthy lodgings — Summary dealings — Preparations for the Expedition — Visit from an ogre prince — Assignment of duties — Departure of the land-party


CHAPTER VIII. — FROM THE SEA OF GALILEE TO THE FALLS OF BUK’AH.

Departure of the boats — Scenery of the lake — Enter the Jordan — Mount Hermon — Bridge of Semakh — Dangerous situation of the boats — Character of the country — Arab hospitality — Formidable rapids — Troublesome strangers — More rapids — Village of Abeidiyeh — Falls and whirlpool of Buk’ah — Ruins of Delhemiyeh — Rejoined by the land — party — Predatory habits of the Bedawin — Account furnished by the land-party — Visit from Emir Nasser — Preparations for further progress — Night encampment.


CHAPTER IX. — FROM THE FALLS OF BUK’AH TO FOURTH CAMPING PLACE UPON THE JORDAN

Daybreak excursion — Profusion of flowers — Gadara — Loss of a boat — Passage of the cascades — Imprudence — Descent of the fourth rapid — the River Yermak — View from a hill-top — Another frightful rapid — Bridge of the Place of Meeting — Ruined khan — Bedawin encampment — Continued succession of rapids — Excessive heat — A noble Arab — Ruins of Gadara — Land of Issachar — Visit of Lieutenant Dale to Muhammed Pasha — Preparations for defence — Perilous situation of the Fanny Mason — Escape — Peculiar formation of the hills — Desert silence — Principal productions — Change of climate — Arab camp — Commotion — Extraordinary windings of the river — Starting of the caravan — Desolate aspect of the country — Heat and drought — A relief — Arab beauty — A pastoral entertainment — A Turkish camp — An unwelcome escort — Arab tents — Voracity of the Arabs — A false alarm.


CHAPTER X. — FROM THE FOURTH CAMP ON THE JORDAN TO THE FORD OF SCKÂ.

Start anew — Wonder of the barbarians — Windings — Rapid current — Beautiful scenery — Wild beasts — Birds — Management of the boats — Sandbanks and islands — Meeting with ’Akil — Perils of the voyage — Change of aspect — Eastern Mountains — The ogre prince and his tribe — Geological features of the country — Prevailing productions — Numerous islands — Fish and Birds — Wild Boars — Indications of ruins — Precautions — Dangers of navigation — Ruins of Succoth — True character of the camel — Route of the caravan — Fording the river — A Floral plain — Fresh difficulties and dangers of the river — Abundance of the thistle — General description of the country — Ford of Scka — Alarming intelligence — Exciting incident — Painful desolation — Vegetation on the Jordan — The zukkum — Botanical specimens — Muhammedan sects — Nocturnal anxiety — Arab fraternization — Description of the river — An Eastern scene — Picturesque view — Mournful music — A singular minstrel — The Emir’s love-song


CHAPTER XI. — FROM FORD OF SCKÂ TO PILGRIM’S FORD.

Changes in the vegetation — Suspicious neighbourhood — Fresh perils — Roman bridge — Arab cookery — Mode of eating — Parting with the Emir — Aspect and productions of the banks — Singular caverns — River Jabok — Scripture localities — An alarm — A present received — More rapids — Cold — A night voyage — Disagreeable situation — El Meshra’a — A sacred spot — Capture of a camel — Gazelles — Jericho — Glimpse of the Dead Sea and mountains of Moab — Pilgrim’s Ford — False alarm — Army of pilgrims — Bathing in the Jordan — Happy meeting — Determination to proceed — Letter to the Secretary of the Navy.


CHAPTER XII. — FROM PILGRIM’S FORD TO FIRST CAMP ON THE DEAD SEA.

Further progress — Character of the river — Enter the Dead Sea — Gale — Arab tradition — Discouragements — Change of weather — Aspect of the shores — Night upon the sea — Apprehensions — A landing — Pleasing incident — Ancient caverns — Fountain of the Stride — Dismissal of our escort — Excursion — Painful Desolation — Arab honour — A Bedawin feast — Leave-taking — Unwelcome music — Arabs at prayer — Evidences of animated nature — Wretched appearance of proffered guides — Anxiety respecting the boats — Their safe return — Soundings of the Dead Sea — Brook Kidron — Valley of Jehoshaphat — Cliff of Mukutta — Aspect of the shores of the sea — Fresh-water stream — Preparations for moving southward.


CHAPTER XIII. — FROM AIN EL FESHKHAH TO AIN JIDY (ENGADDI).

Incidents at starting — Delightful spot — Vegetable products — Shooting at ducks — Quiet night scene — Intelligence from Dr. Anderson — Hills and ravines — Ruins — Remarkable caves — Wilderness of Engaddi — Disappointment — Fruits and flowers — Evidences of former cultivation — Cavernous mountain — Examination of the boats — Barometrical and thermometrical observations — Scruples of the Arabs in regard to pork — Their sobriety — Their habits of pilfering — Singular phenomenon — Arabs’ opinion of the cause of our visit — Commerce — Anxiety respecting provisions — Observe Easter Sunday — Atmospheric phenomena — Wild boars brought in — Inaccessible caverns — A welcome arrival — Currents in the Dead Sea — Magnificent sunset — An Arab dance — Kindness of Mr. Finn, the British Consul — An unexpected luxury — Illness of a seaman — Departure for the peninsula — Orders — Result of soundings — Description of the Peninsula — Geological formation — Total absence of vegetation — Bushes incrusted with salt — The River Arnon — Discouraging information — Arab improvisatore.


CHAPTER XIV. — EXPEDITION AROUND THE SOUTHERN SEA.

Start upon a reconnoissance — The escort escorted — Currents — General observations — Cliff of Sebbeh — Ruined fortification — Geological formation of the western shore — Locusts — Moses’ stone — Fears and anxieties of the Arabs — Ruins — Distressing heat — A sirocco — Search for the ford — Landing at Usdum — Salt mountain — Pillar of salt — Bitter melon — Dismiss the Arabs — Muddy shore — Heat of the soil — Difficulties in taking observations — Complete desolation — Lofty hills — Remarkable phenomenon — Burning hurricane — Ancient mill-stone — Painful effects of the sirocco — Apprehensions of the Arabs — Physical conformation of the tribes — Insupportable heat and thirst — A dreadful night — Abatement of the heat — An alarm — A menaced attack — Zoar — Moab — Arabs’ ideas respecting the boats — Verification of Scripture narrative — Another sirocco —Scarcity of provisions — Usefulness of the Arabs — Atmospheric refraction — Tendency to drowsiness — Return to Ain Jidy — Intelligence from home — European news — Reflections — Dwellings in the rock — Egerian fountain — Delicious bath — Luxurious repast — Singular appearance of the sea — Density of the water — Experiments — Opinion of Galen — The osher, or apple of Sodom — Character of the north winds.


CHAPTER XV. — EXCURSION TO MASADA.

Call to prayer — Party despatched to Masada — Firing of minute-guns in honour of Ex-President Adams — Remarkable changes in the aspect of the sea — Mode of reaping and threshing among the Arabs — Their humanity to animals — Singular illusion — Dangerous route — Ruins of Masada.


CHAPTER XVI. — FROM CAMP TO THE CAPITAL OF MOAB.

The day of rest — Effects of the climate upon health — Heat and desolation — Irresistible drowsiness — Painful forebodings — Battle between two parties of Arabs — Friendly invitation from the sheikh Abd ‘Allah — Benefits of bathing — Luxuriant vegetation — An Arab present — The Fellahin tribes — Mezra’a — Christian Arabs — Mode of salutation — Interesting incident — Meteors — Damages to the boats — Preparation of specimens — Wild boar killed — Density of the water in the bay — Generous conduct of the Arabs — Zoar — Ancient ruins — Muslim and Christian sheikhs — Letter from ’Akil — Curiosity and superstition of the Arabs — Songs of welcome and war-cries — Fears of treachery — Preparations for defence — Inland excursion — Ancient fortification — Stupendous view — Appalling storm — Wild character of the scenery — Inexpertness of the Arab marksmen — Symptoms of cultivation — Entrance into Kerak — Filth and discomfort of the dwellings —Annoying curiosity — A Christian priest and chapel — Magnificence of the castle — The cemetery — Ambitious views of ’Akil — Discontent of the Muslim sheikh — Reasons for distrust — Oppression of the Christians of Kerak — Their appeal to the Christians of America — Nocturnal pleasures — Departure from Kerak — Insolence of the Arabs — Precautions — Muhammed made prisoner — Arrival at the beach — Letter to ’Akil — Extortion practised upon former travelers — Release of Muhammed — Embarkation.


CHAPTER XVII. — CRUISE ALONG THE ARABIAN SHORE.

The river Arnon — Lofty cliffs — Singular ravine — Fears of sickness — Sketch of the shores — Hot springs of Callirohoe — Delightful contrast — Privation and discontent — Reflections.


CHAPTER XVIII. — FROM THE OUTLET OF THE HOT SPRINGS OF CALLIROHOE TO AIN TURABEH.

Changes of temperature — Disappointment — Machaerus — Deep soundings — Arrival at Ain Turabeh — Return to the tents — Preparation for departure — Intense heat — Sirocco — The bulbul — Increasing heat — The American flag floating over the sea — Analysis of the water — Result of our labours — Hypotheses — Conviction of the truth of the Scripture narrative — Our last night on the Dead Sea.


CHAPTER XIX. — FROM THE DEAD SEA TO THE CONVENT OF MAR SABA.

Breaking up of our camp — Regrets at leaving — Incidents of the journey — Night encampment — Sherîf tells his history — His character — Indebtedness of the expedition to his fidelity — Monks of Mar Saba — Intelligence from the sick seamen — Rapid change of climate — Dreary scenery — Holy associations — Specimens forwarded — Painful alternations of temperature — The brook Kedron — Convent of Mar Saba — Plants and flowers — The hyssop — Thunderstorm — Accident — Sabbath rest — The coney.


CHAPTER XX. — FROM MAR SABA TO JERUSALEM.

Arab attendants discharged — Labours renewed — Rocky cistern — The virtue of necessity — Desolate aspect of the country — Fulfilment of prophecy — A contrast — Painful reflections — Arab burial — ground — Tokens of cultivation — Arab encampment — Tobacco — Pilgrims’ road — The tribe Subeih — Curiosity of the people — Troublesome interference — Attempted extortion — Pastoral scene — Highly cultivated valley — Insecurity of the husbandman — An Arab’s love — Mode of courtship — Tales of jealousy and revenge — First view of Jerusalem — Impression produced — Prominent objects — Character of the surrounding country — Well of Job — Mount of offence — Pool of Siloam — Fountain of the Virgin — Village of Siloam — Tombs of Absalom, Zacharias, and Jehoshaphat — Garden of Gethsemane — Valley of the Son of Hinnorn — Traditionary spots — The Aceldama — Garden of Urias — Mount Zion — Hill of Evil Counsel — Tents pitched — View from the encampment — Night under the walls of Jerusalem.


CHAPTER XXI. — JERUSALEM.

Cold morning — Leveling proceeded with — Turkish military review — Tomb of the Empress Helena — Scenery on the Jaffa road — Convent of the Holy Cross — Ludicrous superstition — View of the city from this point — Description — Habitations of the Lepers — Boats sent to Jaffa — Recreation — Dr. Anderson leaves us — His praiseworthy conduct — Extract from the diary of one of the officers — His first day in Jerusalem — Via Dolorosa — Threatened attack — Mosque of Omar — Church of the Holy Sepulchre — Motley groups — Mendicity — Pious zeal of the pilgrims — Description of the interior of the Church of the Sepulchre — Ascent of the Mount of Olives — View from the summit — Visit to the Garden of Gethsemane — The Golden Gate — Fountain of the Virgin — Armenian convent — Splendid chapel — Character of the visitors to Jerusalem — Traditional fables — Sacred localities, their claims to confidence — Reflections — Skepticism and blind credulity — Speculations upon the future — Scripture predictions — Scientific labours continued — Description of interesting localities — Magnificent view from the Mount of — Olives — A coxcomb out of place — Kindness of the British Consul — Scanty condition of our wardrobe — Expedients — Pool of Bethesda — Picturesque scene — Varieties of costume — Singular marriage — procession — Pompous promenade of the foreign consuls — Walls of the city — Muhammedan and Christian predictions — Visit to Bethlehem — Pool of Gihon — Well of the Magi — Plaits of Rephaim — Convent of John the Baptist — Tomb of Rachel — Wilderness of St. John — Valley of Elah — David’s Well — Doubts as to the birth-place of the Messiah — Calmet’s views — Hill of the Annunciation — Ruth’s gleaning — ground — Lovely rural view — Treatment of pilgrims at Jerusalem — Restrictions upon Christians — Products of the surrounding country.


CHAPTER XXII. — FROM JERUSALEM TO JAFFA.

Preparations for departure — Mizpah — Affecting incident — Luxuriant vegetation — Bridge of the Kulonieh — Picturesque scene — A cameleon caught — Restrictions upon the Arab tribes — Craft met by craft — Acuteness of hearing of the Arabs — Peculiarities in their physical conformation — The North American Indian — Results of education — The Arab and Indian contrasted — Chateaubriand’s opinion — Further progress — Character of the country — Scriptural localities — Meeting with a lady traveler — Execrable nature of the roads and accommodations — Kirjathjearim — Attempt to stop our progress — An Arab robber sheikh — The olive tree — View of the Mediterranean — Exhilaration of feeling — Vale of Sharon — Visit from a sheikh — Pastoral scene — Improvement in the roads — Village of Latrun — Gaza — Kubab — Jackals — Singular mode of loading donkeys — Filthy habits of the people — Ramleh — Traditions — Environs of the town — Yazur — Dervishes and pilgrims — Fountain and mosque — Results of our operations in leveling— Jaffa — Proposed harbour — Description of the town and its environs — Copt village — Muhammedan superstitions — Throwing the djerid — Funeral procession — Syro-American consul — Historical and mythological recollections of Jaffa — Traditions — Population — Dinner at the Consul’s house — A beautiful woman — Etiquette — Kindness and courtesy of the consul — Bridal procession — Treatment of Turkish wives — Laws of divorce — Universal thraldom of woman — Turkish laws of inheritance — Seclusion of females in Syria — Dine at the house of the British Consul — Singular costume of his lady — Agricultural improvements introduced by him — Anecdotes — Supposed antediluvian ruin — Zodiacal lights — An estrangement — Boats launched — The estrangement explained — Treatment of slaves.


CHAPTER XXIII. — FROM JAFFA TO NAZARETH.

Preparations — An Arab’s toilet — Departure of the land — party for St. Jean d’Acre — Embarkation — Detention - View of Jaffa from the harbour — Start afresh — Meditations suggested by the scenery — Arrival at St. Jean d’Acre — Route of the land — party — Ruins of Apollonia — El Haram — Mukhalid — Es Skarki — Incidents — Ruins of Caesarea — The river Zerka — Town of Tantura — Dreadful accident to one of the seamen — Castle of the pilgrims — Mount Carmel — Village of Haifa — Visit from Sherîf and ’Akil — Visit returned — Arab entertainment — Start for Nazareth — Valley of the Winds — Annoying accident — Arrival at Nazareth — Scene at the Fountain of the Virgin — Franciscan convent — Traditions — Description of the town — Turkish tax — gatherer — Flowers collected.


CHAPTER XXIV. — FROM NAZARETH TO THE SOURCE OF THE JORDAN.

Start for Mount Tabor — Plain of Esdraelon — Village of Nain — Ascent to the summit of Mount Tabor — Ruins — Extensive view — Proceed onward — Ruined villages — Bid farewell to the lower Jordan — Sea of Galilee — Ruins of Tarrichaea and Kades — Hot bath of Emmaus — Tiberias — Disappointment — Fountain Bareideh — Magdala — Localities passed — Ruins of Khan Minyeh — Fountain of the Fig — Supposed site of Capernaum — Debouchure of the upper Jordan — Singular tents — Disturbed rest — Bethsaida — Aspect of the country — View of Mount Hermon — Lake Merom — Fountain of the Salt Works — The Golden Stream — Castle of Honin — Roman bridge — The Ancient Dan — Copious springs — Derivation of the word Jordan — Cesarea Philippi — Ruins — River of Banias — Fabulous legends — Improvements in culture and civilization — Town of Hasbeiya — Reception of visitors — Population of the town — Variety of sects — Religious discord — Persecution of Protestants — Horrors of Fanaticism — Visit from Prince Ali — Source of the Jordan — Magnificent scene — Costume of the prince — Dress of the lower orders — Terrace cultivation — The Druses — Their religious tenets — Their Costume — Visit to the valley of the Litany — Pits of Bitumen — Women at the fountain — A trying transition.


CHAPTER XXV. — FROM THE SOURCE OF THE JORDAN TO DAMASCUS, BA’ALBEK, BEÏRÛT, HOME.

Joyful intelligence — Start for Damascus — Druse villages — Disappearance of cultivation — Character of the vegetation — Gorge of the Wistanee — Fine view — Cities visible — Abortive attempt to ascertain the height of Mount Hermon — Snow — Geological features — Mineral spring — Legend — Reappearance of cultivation — Approach to Damascus — Beautiful gardens — Description of the town — Meeting with an American — The flag of our country displayed — Pleasant quarters — A cafe — Curious scene — Multitude of dogs — Turkish insolence — The bazaars — A bath — Population — Entertained by American missionaries — A family history — St. Paul’s escape from Damascus — Antiquity of the town — Vicissitudes in its history — Jewish dwellings — Dress of the Jews — Distinguished visitors — Leave the city — Striking and beautiful view — Character of the surrounding country — Village of Zebdany — Fine gardens — Traditions — Holy spring — A haughty Kurd prince — An Arab drunkard — Plain of Buk’ah — Arab traditions — Ruins of Heliopolis — Lamartine’s description — Indisposition of some of the party — Enormous block of granite — Roman mound — Arab fellahas — Night encampment — Increasing sickness — Self — reproaches — Route continued — Numerous villages — Town of Zahley — Disheartening occurrences — Roman road — Unexpected relief — Arrival at the seashore — Disappointment — Exhaustion and increasing illness — Medical relief — Convalescence — Anniversary of our country’s independence — Alarming illness of Lieut. Dale — Kindness of Rev. Mr. Smith and Dr. De Forest — Visit from Dr. Vandyke — Case of unfeeling selfishness — Death of Lieut. Dale — Preparations to convey the remains to his native land — Painful accident and disappointment — Interment of the body in the Frank cemetery — Embarkation — Tedious passage — Arrival at Malta — Kindness of the American Consul — Quarantined — Arrival of the Supply — Reembarkation — Uncourteous reception at Naples, Marseilles, and Gibraltar — Arrival home — Conclusion — Analysis of Dead-Sea Water.