New Zealand Moths and Butterflies

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New Zealand Moths and Butterflies  (1898) 
by George Vernon Hudson

NEW ZEALAND


MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES


(MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA).


BY

G. V. HUDSON, F.E.S.,


WITH 13 PLATES.


LONDON:

WEST, NEWMAN & Co., 54, HATTON GARDEN, E.C.

1898.


CONTENTS.


PAGE
INTRODUCTION ix
THE CARADRININA 1
THE NOTODONTINA 38
THE PAPILIONINA 101
THE PSYCHINA 122
THE MICROPTERYGINA (PART ONLY) 127
APPENDIX (Descriptive List of Plants) 137
GENERAL INDEX 141
SPECIAL INDEX 142
PLATES AND EXPLANATIONS 145

"The rearing of larvæ, . . . when joined with the entomological collection, adds immense interest to Saturday afternoon rambles, and forms an admirable introduction to the study of physiology."


"When simple curiosity passes into the love of knowledge as such, and the gratification of the æsthetic sense of the beauty of completeness and accuracy seems more desirable than the easy indolence of ignorance; when the finding out of the causes of things becomes a source of joy, and he is counted happy who is successful in the search; common knowledge of Nature passes into what our forefathers called Natural History, from whence there is but a step to that which used to be termed Natural Philosophy, and now passes by the name of Physical Science."


"It is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent upon each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us. These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; Inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the conditions of life, and from use and disuse: a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of Nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."



PREFACE.


The present work is intended as a guide to those who desire to collect or study our native Lepidoptera, and also as a book of reference to the general reader.

In the Introduction I have first given an outline of the Transformations and Structure of the Lepidoptera. Then a brief sketch of the Darwinian theories respecting the origin of species and their special application to various phenomena exhibited by moths and butterflies, as well as a short outline of the general principles which have been followed in framing modern classifications of the order. Next follow five chapters on the various groups dealt with.

With a few exceptions this work only treats of what are, for the sake of convenience, termed the Macro-Lepidoptera. A similar work on the numerous and interesting species of Micro-Lepidoptera found in New Zealand may at some future time be undertaken.

In conclusion, I have to discharge the pleasurable duty of thanking the numerous entomologists who have so liberally assisted me in the production of this work. First, and especially, my thanks are due to Mr. Meyrick, without whose masterly papers and 'Handbook' but little could have been accomplished. Next, to Mr. R. W. Fereday, who very kindly allowed me to figure many species of which he alone possesses specimens—in itself an invaluable assistance. I have also to express my thanks to Messrs. E. F. Hawthorne, H. P. Hanify, R. I. Kingsley, A. Norris, A. Philpott, and others for the loan of specimens, and for much valuable information regarding the localities and habits of rare or local species. Lastly, I have to acknowledge the aid so willingly given by my lamented friend, the late Mr. A. S. Olliff, of Sydney.

Karori, Wellington,
 New Zealand,
 1897.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1946, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.