Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/610

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598

��OKGAN.

��ORGAN.

��GBEAT ORGAN. 12 stop.*.

Pipes Pipes

1. Bourdon, to CO . . 53 7. Tierce .... 57

2. Open Diapason 57 8. Sesqulaltera, 4 ranks . 228

3. Stopped Diapason . 57 9. Furniture, 3 ranks . 171

4. Principal ... 67 10. Cornet to mid. 0,5 ranks 145 6. Twelfth .... 67 11. Trumpet ... 67 6. Fifteenth ... 67 12. CUrion .... _W

1083 CBOIB ORGAN. 7 stops.

16. Flute . . . W

67 17. Fifteenth . . . 57

67 IS. Bassoon up to Fiddle G 36

67 19. Vox Humana . . 57

��13. Dulciana, of metal

throughout .

14. Stopped Diapason

15. Principal

��SWILL. 8 stops, and 3 borrowed Bass stops.

20. Open Diapason 36 26. Trumpet

21. Stopped Diapason . 36

22. Dulciana ... 36

23. German Flute, to mid. 29

24. Cornet. 4 ranks . . 144

25. French Horn . . 36

��S78

��96

27. Hautboy ... 86 a. Stopped Bass 1 6. Dnlclana Bass >from Choir, c. Flute Bass j

Total 1860

��Compass, Gt. and Chr. GO, long Sves. no GG f , to E In alt, 57 notes. Swell, Tenor F to In alt, 36 notes.

1789. Greenwich Hospital. SAMUEL GBEEK. Swell to FF.

In the organ made for the chapel of the Royal Hospital at Greenwich, Green extended the com- pass of the Swell down to FF, a most important improvement; and included therein not only a Dulciana but also its octave, the Dulcet or Dul- ciana Principal. The disposition of this organ stood as follows :

��1 790. St. George's Chapel, Windsor.

SAMUEL GREEK. Great Organ in general Swell. In the organ built for the Chapel Koyal at Windsor in the following year, Green further extended the effect of the ' crescendo ' and ' di- minuendo ' by enclosing the entire Great Organ in a large general Swell. The upper manual organ thus became ' a Swell within a Swell.' The great front pipes, east and west, were therefore all ' mutes,' but were replaced by speaking pipes when the general swell was taken away some years ago by Gray. The compass of the Great and Choir Organs was carried down to FFF, 1 2 ft., as in Green's organ at Greenwich, and also in those which he restored at Magdalen College, Oxford, and York Minster.

GREAT ORGAN. 11 stops.

��1. Open Diapason

2. Open Diapason

3. Stopped Uiapason

4. Principal

5. Twelfth .

6. Fifteenth

��Pipes Pipes

7. Sesquialtera, 3 ranks . 177

8. Mixture, 2 ranks . . 118

9. Cornet to mid. C, 4 ranks 116

10. Trumpet ... 59

11. Small Trumpet (Clarion) 59

��12. Dulciana, to FF

13. Stopped Diapason

14. Principal

��18. Open Diapason .

19. Stopped Diapason

20. Dulciana

ffl. Principal . .

��CHOIR ORGAN. 6 stops, 18 15. Flute . 59 16. Fifteenth 59 17. Bassoon .

LL ORGAN. 8 stops.

��22. Dulciana Principal

23. Cornet, 3 ranks .

24. Trumpet . .

25. Hautboy

Total

��GREAT ORGAN. 11 stops.

� �Pipes

�Pipes

�1. Open Diapason . 2. Open Diapason . 3. Stopped Diapason 4. Principal .

�59 59


59

�7. Fifteenth . . 8. Sesquialtera, 3 ranks . 9. Mixture, 2 ranks . 10. Cornet to mid. 0,4 ranks

�69 177 118 116

�5. Flute

�59

�11. Trumpet . .

�59

�6. Twelfth .

�69

� �883

�C

�IOIB ORGAN. 5 stops.

� �12. Stopped Diapason

�59

�15. Fifteenth ...

�69

�13. Principal . .

�59

�16. Bassoon ....

�59

�14. Flute .

�59

� �296

�SWELL ORGAN. 8 stops.

�17. Open Diapason .

�48

�22. Cornet. 3 ranks . .

�144

�18. Stopped Diapason

�48

�23. Trumpet ...

�48

�19. Dulciana

�43

�24. Hautboy . .

�48

�20. Principal

�48

� �480

�21. Dulciana Principal

�48

�Total

�1658

��Compass, Gt. and Chr. FFF, no FFF if, to E In alt, 59 notes. Swell, Tenor F, to E In alt ; 36 notes.

1 790. Introduction of Pedals.

Although, as we have seen, Pedals were known in Germany upwards of four hundred years ago, yet they were not introduced into England until nearly the close of the last century. Who first made them, or which was the first organ to have them, are matters of some doubt. The organs in Westminster Abbey, the German Lutheran Church in the Savoy, and St. Matthew's, Friday Street, each claim the priority. The first organ that is known for certain to have had them, was that made in 1 790 by G. P. England, and erected by him at St. James's, Clerkenwell, which in- strument, according to the words of the original specification, was ' to have Pedals to play by the feet.' These, like the early German specimens, were an octave only in compass, GG to Gamut G ; and also, as at Halberstadt, etc., had no pipes of their own, but only drew down the manual keys. Before 1793 Avery put Pedals to the Westminster Abbey organ, together with an octave of Unison wood GG Pedal -pipes; and from that date he frequently introduced both into his own instruments. In 1 8 1 1 G. P. England built an organ for Lancaster with i| octave of Pedals, GG to Tenor C ; and two couplers, Great and Choir to Pedal. He also, like Avery, became a strong advocate for separate pipes for the pedals, introducing them in 1 803 into his organ at New- ark, which had the FFF (12 ft.) pipe.

After a time pipes of double size, speaking down to GGG (2i feet length) were made, as by Elliott & Hill at Westminster Abbey, etc. Be- sides the Unison and Double Pedal-pipe ranges, a mongrel scale crept into use, which, though most defective, was for a few years the most frequently followed. This consisted of an octave of double pipes from CC down to CCC, and then five unison pipes from BB down to GG. The five pedal keys, B to G, at each extremity of the pedal-board, were thus without any difference in the pitch of their five sounds.

1809. Composition Pedals. J. C. BISHOP.

In 1809 the late J. C. Bishop effected the im- provement on the old Shifting movement which afterwards became so generally known as the Composition Pedals. [See vol. i. p. 382 6.] An important modification on his original mechanism is now generally made, by a long arm of iron, called a fan, extending horizontally in front of the vertical draw-rods, where by suitable me- chanism it is made to wave up and down. As the fan moves it comes in contact with small 'blocks' of wood, by which it moves the rods;

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