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��SCHOOLS OF COMPOSITION.
very great so much too great for detailed criti- cism, that we must content ourselves with a brief notice of those only which have exercised the most important influence upon Art in general. In making a selection of these, we have been guided, before all things, by the principles of aesthetic analogy, though neither local nor chro- nological coincidences have been overlooked, or could possibly have been overlooked, in the con- struction of the following scheme, in accordance with which we propose to arrange the order of our leading divisions.
CLASS I. THE POLYPHONIC SCHOOLS.
I. The First Flemish School (1370 1430>. H. The Second Flemish School (14301480). m. The Third Flemish School (1480-1520). IV. The Fourth Flemish School (15201590). V. The Early Roman School (15171565). VI. The Later Roman School (15651504). VII. The Venetian School (15271609). VIII. The Early Florentine School (circa 1539- 1600). JX. The Schools of Lombardy (circa 1500-1600). X. The EarlyNeapolitan School (circa 1434-1600). XI. The School of Bologna (circa 15001600). XII. The German Polyphonic Schools (14801568).
XIII. The Schools of Munich and Nuremberg (1557
XIV. The Early French School (circa 1600-1572). XV. The Spanish School (15401605).
XVI. The Early English Schools (12261625). XVII. The Schools of the Decadence (1600, et seq,).
CLASS II. THE MONODIC, DRAMATIC, AND
XVIH. The Monodic School of Florence (15971600). XIX. The School of Mantua (16071613). XX. The Venetian Dramatic School (16371700). XXI. The Neapolitan School of the 17th century
(16591725). XXII. The German Schools of the 17th century
(16201700). XXHI. The French School of the 17th century (1650
XXIV. The English School of the 17th century (1660 1700), including that of the Restoration. XXV. The Italian Schools of the 18th century (circa
17001800). XXVI. The German Schools of the 18th century
XXVII. The School of Vienna (1750-1828). XXVUI. The French School of the 18th century (circa
XXIX. The English School of the 18th century (circa 17001800).
��:. The Modern German School (1800, et teq.). XXXI. The Romantic School (1821, et seq.). XXXIL The Modern Italian School (1800, et teq.). XXXILT. The Modern French School (1800, et teq.). XXXTV. The Modern English School (1800, et teq.). XXXV. The Schools of the Future.
I. The Art of Composition was long supposed to have owed its origin to the intense love of Music which prevailed in the Low Countries, during the latter half of the 1 4th century. The researches of modern criticism have proved this hypothesis to be groundless, so far as its leading proposition is concerned : yet, it contains so much collateral truth, that, while awaiting the results of farther investigation, we are still justified in representing Flanders as the country whence the cultivation of Polyphony AVRS first disseminated to other lands. If the Netherlanders were not the arliest Composers, they were, at least, the first
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Musicians who taught the rest of Europe how to compose. And, with this certain fact before us, we have no hesitation in speaking of THE FIRST FLEMISH SCHOOL as the earliest manifestation of creative genius which can be proved to have ex- ercised a lasting influence upon the history of Art. The force of this assertion is in no wise invalidated by the strong probability that the Faux-bourdon was first sung in France, and exported thence, at a very early period, to Italy. For the primitive Faux-bourdon, though it indicated an immense ad- vance in the practice of Harmony, was, technically considered, no more than a highly-refined develop- ment of the extempore Organum, or Discant, of the nth and I2th centuries, and bore very little relation to the true 'Cantus super librum,' to which, alone, the term Composition can be logi- cally applied. We owe, indeed, a deep debt of gratitude to the Organizers, and Discanters, by whom it was invented ; for, without the mate- rials accumulated by their ingenuity and patience, later Composers could have done nothing. They first discovered the harmonic combinations which have been claimed, as common property, by all succeeding Schools. The misfortune was that with the discovery their efforts ceased. Of sym- metrical arrangement, based upon the lines of a preconceived design, they had no idea. Their highest aspirations extended no farther than the enrichment of a given Melody with such Har- monies as they were able to improvise at a moment's notice : whereas Composition, properly so called, depends, for its existence, upon the invention or, at least, the selection of a de- finite musical idea, which the genius of the Com- poser presents, now in one form, and now in another, until the exhaustive discussion of its various aspects produces a work of Art, as con- sistent, in its integrity, as the conduct of a Scholastic Thesis, or a Dramatic Poem. Upon this plan, the Flemish Composers formed their style. They delighted in selecting their themes from the popular Ditties of the period little Volkslieder, familiar to men of all ranks, and dear to the hearts of all. These they developed, either into Ssecular Chansons for three or more Voices, or into Masses and Motets of the most solemn and exalted character; with no more thought of iireverence, in the latter case, than the Painter felt, when he depicted Our Lady, resting, during her Flight into ^Egypt, amidst the familiar surroundings of a Flemish hostelry. At this period, representing the Infancy of Art, the Subject, or Canto fermo, was almost invariably placed in the Tenor, and sung in long- sustained notes, while two or more supplementary Voices accompanied it with an elaborate Counterpoint, written, like the Canto fermo itself, in one or other of the antient Ecclesiastical Modes, and consisting of Fugal Passages, Points of Imi- tation, or even Canons, all suggested by the primary idea, and all working together for a com- mon end. This was Composition, in the fullest sense of the word; and, as the truth of the principle upon which it was based has never yet been disputed, the Musicians who so successfully