Page:A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism - Volume 2.djvu/199
��DIRECTION OF THE FORCE.
��there will be an electromotive force in the circuit whose value
~ 7 dx is Zl .
If x is increasing, that is, if the carriage is moving away from the terminus, this electromotive force is in the negative direction, or north, west, south, east. Hence the direction of this force through the axle is from right to left. If x were diminishing, the absolute direction of the force would be reversed, but since the direction of the motion of the carriage is also reversed, the electro motive force on the axle is still from right to left, the observer in the carriage being always supposed to move face forwards. In southern latitudes, where the south end of the needle dips, the electromotive force on a moving body is from left to right.
Hence we have the following rule for determining the electro motive force on a wire moving through a field of magnetic force. Place, in imagination, your head and feet in the position occupied by the ends of a compass needle which point north and south respec tively ; turn your face in the forward direction of motion, then the electromotive force due to the motion will be from left to right.
533.] As these directional relations are important, let us take another illustration. Suppose a metal girdle laid round the earth at the equator, and a metal wire laid along the meridian of Green wich from the equator to the north pole.
Let a great quadrantal arch of metal be constructed, of which one extremity is pivoted on the north pole, while the other is carried round the equator, sliding on the great girdle of the earth, and following the sun in his daily course. There will then be an electromotive force along the moving quadrant, acting from the pole towards the equator.
The electromotive force will be the same whether we suppose the earth at rest and the quadrant moved from east to west, or whether we suppose the quadrant at rest and the earth turned from west to east. If we suppose the earth to rotate, the electromotive force will be the same whatever be the form of the part of the circuit fixed in space of which one end touches one of the poles