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wards Cardinal) Wiseman. In the following August he arrived in London, where his gentle and engaging manner endeared him to the clergy. In 1832 he issued, in conjunction with Bishop Bramston, a pastoral letter to the clergy and laity of the London district prohibiting wakes during the prevalence of the cholera. He died in Golden Square, London, on 15 March 1833. His eulogy is inscribed on a handsome marble monument in the church of St. Mary, Moorfields, where he was buried.
He was the author of: 1. ‘A Dissertation on the Fable of Papal Antichrists,’ London, 1816, 8vo. 2. ‘A Winter Evening Dialogue between John Hardman and John Cardwell; or, Thoughts on the Rule of Faith, in a series of letters addressed to the authors of “Letters to the Clergy of the Catholic Church, and more especially to the Rev. Thomas Sherburne of Kirkham, in Lancashire.”’ Published, under the pseudonym John Hardman, in the ‘Catholicon,’ 1817. 3. ‘The Journals of Dr. Gradwell from his arrival at Rome, 2 March 1817, to 21 March 1825, with various illustrative papers.’ Manuscript thick folio, unpaginated, in the archives of the see of Westminster. 4. ‘The Journals of Dr. Gradwell from 15 April 1825 to his arrival in London, 23 Aug. 1828, with several papers connected with the History of the Students in the English College.’ Manuscript in the Westminster archives. 5. ‘Letters and Papers, MS. and printed, being for the most part his correspondence with William Poynter, bishop of Halia, from 1817 to 1828.’ Another thick folio manuscript in the Westminster archives. Gradwell took deep interest in the ancient archives of the English College at Rome, and some of his notes are of great historical value.
His portrait, engraved by J. Holl, was published in the ‘Laity's Directory’ for 1834.[Brady's Episcopal Succession, iii. 197; Gillow's Bibl. Dict.; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, No. 16426; Laity's Directory, 1834; Whittle's Preston, ii. 284; Gent. Mag. ciii. 378, 652; Catholic Magazine and Review, iii. 332; Edinburgh Catholic Mag. i. 311; Catholic Miscellany, 1829, new ser. ii. 336; Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. pp. 233, 236, 237.]
GRAEME, JAMES (1749-1772), poet, born 15 Dec. 1749, at Carnwath in Lanarkshire,was fourth and youngest son of William Graeme, a farmer of the middle class. As a child he was delicate, and his parents educated him for the ministry. After being taught to read in a dame's school, he was sent to the grammar schools of Carnwath, Libberton, and Lanark. In 1767 he went to Edinburgh University, where he studied for three years. His friend and biographer, Robert Anderson (1750-1830) [q. v.], says that he excelled in classical learning, and made a special study of metaphysics, besides reading widely in general literature. In 1769 he was presented to a bursary at St. Andrews, but soon resigned it,and, returning to Edinburgh next year, entered the theological class. In 1771 he became tutor to the sons of Major Martin White of Milton, near Lanark. He died of consumption at Carnwath, 26 July 1772.
Graeme was a man of amiable character, but his poems, consisting of elegies and miscellaneous pieces, show little promise. His poetical reputation is due to the partiality of Anderson, who printed his friend's poems after his death, together with some of his own, in 'Poems on Several Occasions,' Edinburgh, 1773. They reappeared in Anderson's 'Poets of Great Britain,' vol. xi., and in Davenport's 'British Poets,' vol. lxxi.; a selection is given in 'The Works of the British Poets,' edited by T. Parke, vol. v.[Memoirs in Anderson's and Davenport's collections; Chalmers's Biog. Dict.; Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 344; Gent. Mag. 1782. p. 425.]
GRAFTON, RICHARD (d. 1572?), chronicler and printer, was a prosperous London merchant and a member of the Grocers' Company. In 1537 his zeal for the reformed religion led him to arrange for the printing of the Bible in English. Coverdale's translation had been first printed abroad in 1535. In 1537 Grafton, in association with a fellow-merchant, Edward Whitchurch, caused a modification of Coverdale's translation to be printed, probably by Jacob van Meteren, at Antwerp. The title-page assigned the translation to Thomas Matthews, who signed the dedication to Henry VIII, and it is usually known as Matthews's Bible. But Matthews was the pseudonym of John Rogers, the editor. No printer's name nor place is given in the book itself. On 13 Aug. 1537 Grafton sent a copy to Archbishop Cranmer, and on 28 Aug. he presented six others to Cromwell. He thanked Cromwell for having moved the king to license the work, and pressed for a new license under the privy seal to prevent others underselling him. He had fifteen hundred copies to dispose of. His signature ran 'Richard Grafton, grocer.' The encouragement he received was so great that