willed), or as in some way conditional, and consequently only contingent. More particularly such imperfects serve—
[107n] (a) As an expression of will, whether it be a definite intention and arrangement, or a simple desire, viz.:
(1) Sometimes in positive sentences in place of the cohortative (cf. e.g. ψ 5917 with verse 18; 2 S 2250 with ψ 1850; Ju 1911, &c.), of the imperative (Is 183), or of the jussive (which, however, in most cases, does not differ from the ordinary form of the imperfect), e.g. תֵּֽרָאֶה let it appear Gn 19, 4134, Lv 192, 3, 2 S 1012 (and so frequently in verbs ל״ה; cf. §109a, note 2); Zc 95 (תָּחִיל); ψ 617 (תּוֹסִיף); Pr 2217 (תָּשִׁית); 23:1, Jb 623 (co-ordinated with the imperative), 10:20 Keth.; so probably also יָדִין let him judge! ψ 722.—So also in the 1st pers., to express a wish which is asserted subsequently with reference to a fixed point of time in the past, e.g. Jb 1018 אֶגְּוַע I ought to [not should as A.V., R.V.] have, (then, immediately after being born) given up the ghost; cf. verse 19 אֶֽהְיֶה and אוּבָֽל Lv 1018, Nu 3528. Even to express an obligation or necessity according to the judgement of another person, e.g. Jb 929 אֶרְשָׁע I am to be guilty, 12:4. Cp. Jb 915, 1916; in a question, ψ 4210, 432.
[107o] (2) To express the definite expectation that something will not happen. The imperfect with לֹא represents a more emphatic form of prohibition than the jussive with אַל־ (cf. §109c), and corresponds to our thou shalt not do it! with the strongest expectation of obedience, while אַל־ with the jussive is rather a simple warning, do not that! Thus לֹא with the imperfect is especially used in enforcing the divine commands, e.g. לֹא תִגְּנׄב thou shalt not steal Ex 2015; cf. verses 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 ff. So לֹא with the 3rd pers. perhaps in Pr 1610.
[107p] Rem. The jussive, which is to be expected after אַל־, does not, as a rule (according to n, and §109a, note 2), differ in form from the simple imperfect. That many supposed jussives are intended as simple imperfects is possible from the occurrence after אַל־ of what are undoubtedly imperfect forms, not only from verbs ל״ה (cf. §109a, note 2), but also from verbs ע״וּ, to express a prohibition or negative wish, אַל־תַּבִּיט Gn 1917, אַל־תָּסוּר Jos 17, אַל־נָא יַשִׂים 1 S 2525. Even with the 1st pers. plur. (after an imperative) וְאַל־נָמוּת that we die not, 1 S 1219. Also to express the conviction that something cannot happen, אַל־יָנוּם he will not slumber, ψ 1213; cf. Jer 466, 2 Ch 1410.
- As stated in §46a, a prohibition cannot be expressed by אַל־ and the imperative.
- To regard this as an optative (so Hupfeld) is from the context impossible. It is more probably a strong pregnant construction, or fusion of two sentences (such as, do not think he will slumber!). Verse 4 contains the objective confirmation, by means of לֹא with the imperf., of that which was previously only a subjective conviction.