all-powerful eunnch Haang Hao. He brought himself into notice by collectiDg the public papers of Chu-ko Liang, and was employed under the Chin dynasiy to. edit the History of the Three Kingdonuy which was much admired. His biographies of Chin men, however, are marked by personal bias. He became a Censor, but retired at the death of his mother, chiefly on account of the opposition of his rival Hsttn Hsd; and later he refused to take up a post of Instructor to the Heir Apparent. He also wrote the "j^ ^ j^ History of Ancient States^ and a biographical work on SsHch'uan worthies, entitled '^^^ ^^^^
246 Ch'ên Shu-pao 陳叔寶 (T. ). A.D. 553-604. Eldest son of Ch'dn Hs(i, whom he succeeded in 582, and fifth and last sovereign of the Ch'6n dynasty. He gave himself up to a life of debauchery, employing unworthy minions to oppress the people, nntil the Sui armies took his capital without any opposition in 589. When the victorious invaders burst into the palace, the wretched poltroon caused himself and his favourite concubines, Chang li-hua and others, to be lowered into a well, from which they were ignominiously dragged up by the conquerors. His life was spared, and he was sent as Duke of Ch'ang-ch^Sng , his family home, to Ch'ang-an. Known in history as .
247 Ch'ên Shun (T. ). A.D. 1151-1216. A native of IHl j^ Lung-ch4 in Fuhkien, who was attracted to the study of philosophy by reading the ^^^ of Chu Hsi, and when the latter was appointed Goyernor of ^ Chang-chou, received instniction from him as a disciple. He remained an ardent student for the rest of his life; and although he never actually held office, he was greatly esteemed by all the local officials. In 1216 he i^eceived a small appointment, but died before he could proceed. He is said to have been the first to use the term ^ 5^ in thesense of philosophical speculation.