other and yet arranged in separate groups of graphic distinctness. This ensemble, and indeed the whole auction scene, deserve the appellation 'classical' in the highest sense of the word.
[App. p.549 "Add to the works mentioned, the following, completing the list:—
"L'heureuse nouvelle,' 1797; 'Le Pari, ou Mombreuil et Merville,' 1797; 'Les Méprises espagnoles,' 1799; 'Emma, ou La Prisonnière' (with Cherubini), 1799; 'Le Baiser et la Quittance' (with Méhul, Kreutzer and Nicolo), 1803. Produced at St. Petersburg—'Amour et Mystére,' 'Abderkhan,' 'Un Tour de Soubrette,' 'La Dame invisible,' 1808. After his return to Paris—'Bayard a Mézières' (with Cherubini, Catel, and Nicolo). 1814; 'Les Béarnais, ou Henri IV en voyage' (with Kreutzer), 1814; 'Angéla, ou l'Atelier de Jean Cousin' (with Mme. Gail), 1814; 'La Fête du Village voisin,' 1816; 'Charles de France, ou Amour et Gloire' (with Hérold), 1816; 'Blanche de Provence, ou La Cour des Fées' (with Berton, Cherubini, Kreutzer, and Paër), 1821; La France et l'Espagne,' 1823; 'Les Trois Genres' (with Auber), 1824; 'Pharamond' (with Berton and Kreutzer), 1825; and 'La Marquise de Brinvilliers (with Auber, Batton, Berton, Blangini, Carafa, Cherubini, Hérold, and Paër), 1831. (Pougin's Supplement to Fétis's Dictionary.)"]
The remainder of Boieldieu's life is sad to relate. He produced another opera, called 'Les Deux Nuits,' in 1829, but it proved a failure, owing chiefly to the dull libretto by Bouilly, which the composer had accepted from good nature. This disappointment may have fostered the pulmonary disease, the germs of which Boieldieu had brought back from Russia. In vain he sought recovery in the mild climate of Southern France. Pecuniary difficulties increased the discomforts of his failing health. The bankruptcy of the Opéra Comique and the expulsion of Charles X, from whom he had received a pension, deprived Boieldieu of his chief sources of income. At last M. Thiers, the minister of Louis Philippe, relieved the master's anxieties by a government pension of 6000 francs. Boieldieu died October 8, 1834, at Jarcy, his country house, near Paris. The troubles of his last years were shared and softened by his second wife, to whom the composer was united in 1827 after a long and tender attachment. By her he had a son, Adrien, born in 1816, and educated at the Conservatoire under his father. He is the author of several comic operas, some of which have been successfully performed at the Opéra Comique and other theatres. It is perhaps chiefly the burden of his name which prevents him from taking a more distinguished position amongst contemporary French composers. At the centenary celebration of his father's birthday at Rouen a comic opera by the younger Boieldieu, called 'La Halte du Roi' was performed with great success.
[ F. H. ]
BOLERO. A brisk Spanish dance in 3-4 time. The earliest form of its rhythm was
which later became
while to the longer notes of the accompaniment shorter melody notes were given, and vice versá. Gradually the rhythm of the castanets, which were used as an accompaniment to the dance by the dancers themselves, was introduced into the music, which now assumed this form
The bolero usually consists of two chief parts, each repeated, and a trio. The castanet rhythm above referred to mostly commences at least one bar before the melody. Good examples of the bolero may be found in Méhul's 'Les deux Aveugles,' Weber's 'Preciosa' (gipsy-ballet), and Auber's 'Masaniello.' We give the opening of the last as an illustration
[ E. P. ]
BOLLA, Signora, an Italian prima buffa, who sang in London at the opera in 1794. She was a very pretty woman, and a 'pleasing, genteel actress,' who with a better voice would have been an excellent singer. She was very successful in Paisiello's 'Zingari,' and in 'Nina,' which latter she chose for her benefit, with spoken dialogue instead of recitative; but this was considered an infringement of the rights of the English theatres, and after a few nights it was stopped 'by authority.' In 1802 she was singing at Paris in opera buffa with Lazzarini and Strinasacchi.
[ J. M. ]