say that in it we have a sketch of the rise and progress of Italian music from the deposition of the Flemings and the establishment of a national school to the close of the ecclesiastical era and the rise of opera.
Baini thought to publish a complete edition of the works of the great master, whom, with a constantly recurring enthusiasm, he calls 'Il Principe della Musica.' But fate ordained that he should only live to reproduce the man; and he died before he had transcribed and published more than two volumes out of the vast mass of his compositions.
He was as devoted to his profession as he was to his art; and his death, which took place on May 31, 1844, in the 69th year of his age, was attributed to over fatigue arising from persistence in his duties as a confessing priest.
[ E. H. P. ]
BATHE, William, a learned Irishman, was born in Dublin in 1552. [App. p.532 "He was born on Easter Sunday, 1564, being son of John Bathe, a judge, and his wife Eleanor Preston. He entered the novitiate of Tournai in 1595 or 1596. He studied at Louvain and Padua; was appointed rector of the Irish college at Salamanca, and died at Madrid, June 17, 1614."] He entered into the order of the Jesuits, and leaving Ireland travelled extensively on the continent of Europe, and finally settled in Salamanca, being appointed professor of languages in the university of that city. He published there a philological work called 'Janua Linguaruni.' Leaving Salamanca he came to London [App. p.532 omits "he came to London"], where he published some religious treatises, and also 'A Brief Introduction to the true arte of Musicke,' 1584. On the title-page he styles himself 'Student at Oxenford.' It is dedicated to his uncle, Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare. A second edition, under the title of 'A Briefe Introduction to the Skill of Song,' was printed by Thomas Este without date. (Hawkins, Hist.; Biog. Brit.; Imp. Dict. of Biog.).
[ E. F. R. ]
BRANLE (p. 271). The music of many Branles, and other old dances, is given in Arbeau's 'Orchésographie' (Langres 1588), a copy of which is in the British Museum. We quote two:—
C.The keynote of the 'natural' scale, so called because it requires neither flats nor sharps in its signature. In German also it is C, C♯ being called Cis; but in Italian and French it is called Ut and Do, the former from the name given it by Guido d'Arezzo. [Scale.]
It is the Ionic scale of the Church tones or modes, and in it were written 'Ein' feste Burg,' 'Gott der Vater,' 'Jesaia der Propheten,' 'Vom Himmel hoch,' and others of the earliest German chorales. In the 16th century it was much employed for dance tunes, and perhaps on that account was known as 'il modo lascivo' (Zarlino, in Hullah, 'Hist, of Mod. Music,' Lect. 3). In more modern times it has been rendered illustrious among other masterpieces by Gibbons's 'Hosanna,' the Jupiter and C minor Symphonies, and the Overture to Leonora. Schubert's great Symphony and Handel's 'Dead March in Saul' are written in C major.
The name of 'C clef' is given to all clefs when thus written, the line on which the clef mark stands [App. p.574 amends to "the line enclosed by the horizontal lines in the clef mark"] being middle C, and the clef mark itself a corruption of the letter C. Those shown in the example are the Soprano, Alto, and Tenor, but the C clef has been used on every line of the stave.
Horns and trumpets are made to play the scale of C, and are written in the score in that key; they transpose into the key of the piece by the addition of crooks. The drums used formerly to be given in the score in the key of C, with an indication, at the beginning of the movement, of the key in which they were to be tuned. But they are now usually printed as played.
As a sign of time stands for common time, 4 crotchets in a bar; and for allabreve time, with 2 or 4 minims in a bar.
Cf. is occasionally used in church music, or in instruction books, as an abbreviation for canto fermo.
[ G. ]
CABALETTA, also written Cabbaletta and Cavaletta, originally Cavatinetta, from Cavatiwa, usually signifies the short final quick movement of an air.
[ W. H. C. ]
CABEL, Marie Josephe, née Dreulette, born at Liège Jan. 31, 1817. Showed at an early age a great talent for the piano. After the death of her father she became acquainted with Cabel, a teacher of singing, who discovered her fine voice, instructed, and finally married her. In 47 she went with her husband to Paris, and first appeared at the Chateau des Fleurs. On Meyerbeer's recommendation she studied for two