in Beethoven's Violin Sonata in G (op. 96), the chromatic scale of that key is written thus, beginning on the minor 7th of the key—
and as a more modern instance, the chromatic scale of A which occurs in Chopin's Impromptu in F major, is written by him thus—
beginning on the minor 3rd of the key.
The practice of composers in this respect is however extremely irregular, and rapid passages are frequently written as much by Mozart and Beethoven as by more modern composers in the manner which seemed most convenient for the player to read. Beethoven is occasionally very irregular. For instance, in the last movement of the Concerto in G major he writes the following—
in which the same note which is written A♭ in one octave is written G&266f; in the other, and that which is written E♭ in one is written D♯ in the other. But even here principle is observable, for the first octave is correct in the scale of G according to the system given above, but having started it so far according to rule he probably thought that sufficient, and wrote the rest for convenience. In another place, viz. the slow movement of the Sonata in G (op. 31, No. 1), he affords some justification for the modern happy-go-lucky practice of writing sharps ascending and flats descending; but as some basis of principle seems desirable, even in the lesser details of art, the above explanation of what seems the more theoretically correct system has been given.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
CHRYSANDER, Friedrich, born July 8, 1826, at Lübthee, in Mecklenburg, studied at the university of Rostock, lived for some time in England, and now resides on his own estate at Bergedorf, near Hamburg. Chrysander is known to the musical world chiefly through his profound and exhaustive researches on Handel, to which he has devoted his life. His biography of Handel, standing evidence of these studies, is not yet completed. In detail and historical research this work is all that can be wished, but its view of Handel's abstract importance as a musician must be accepted with reservation, and has indeed roused considerable opposition. It cannot be denied that Chrysander's bias for Handel in some measure prejudices his judgment. He represents him not only as the culminating point of a previous development, and the master who perfected the oratorio, but as the absolute culminating point of all music, beyond whom further progress is impossible. While holding these views Chrysander is naturally a declared opponent of all modern music; he is also partial, if not unjust, in his criticisms on the older masters, such as J. S. Bach. Besides these biographical studies Chrysander is occupied in editing the complete works of Handel for the German 'Handel-Gesellschaft.' [ Handel.] His laborious collations of the original MSS. and editions, his astounding familiarity with the most minute details, and his indefatigable industry, combine to make this edition a work of the highest importance, at once worthy of the genius of Handel and honourable to the author. Amongst other writings of Chrysander .may be mentioned two admirable treatises, 'Über die Moll-tonart in Volksgesängen,' and 'Über das Oratorium' (1853); also 'Die Jahrbücher für Musikalische Wissenschaft,' of which 2 vols., 1863–67, have been published (Breitkopf & Härtel); and finally a number of articles in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung of Leipsic (which he edited from 1868 to 71), violently criticising the productions of the modern school. He has also published some excellent editions of Bach's Klavierwerke (4 vols., with preface; Wolfenbüttel, 1856), and Carissimi's oratorios Jephte, Judicium Salomonis, Jonas, and Baltazar, which appeared in his collection 'Denkmüler der Tonkunst' (Weissenborn, Bergedorf). Upon the whole it would not be unfair to say that Chrysander is more a learned professor than a musician. For his research and industry every one is grateful to him; but his opinions as a conservative critic have provoked much vehement, not to say personal, opposition.
[ A. M. ]
[App. p.591 adds "For his chief work as editor of Handel's works see Händel-Gesellschaft in this Appendix. Of the 'Denkmäler der Tonkunst' edited by him, vol. 1 of Corelli and vol. 2 of Couperin are published and the second and final volumes of each nearly ready; and the Te Deum of Urio is published. The 'Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung' was edited by him from 1869 to 1871 and again from 1875 to 1883, when it became extinct. The 'Jahrbücher für musikalische Wissenschaft' ceased to appear after vol. 2. His life of Handel has been laid by on account of the constant and absorbing labour on the edition of Handel's works; but it is believed that there is still hope of its resumption and completion."]
[ R. M. ]
CHURCH, John, born at Windsor in 1675, received his early musical education as a chorister of St. John's College, Oxford. On Jan. 31, 1697, he was admitted a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and on Aug. 1 following was advanced to a full place, vacant by the death of James Cobb. He obtained also the appointments of lay vicar and master of the choristers of Westminster Abbey. Church composed some anthems and also many songs, which appeared in the collections of the period, and he was the author of an 'Introduction to Psalmody,' published in 1723. The compilation of a book of words of Anthems published in 1712 under the direction of the Sub-dean of the Chapel Royal (Dr. Dolben) has been ascribed to Church, although it is more generally attributed to Dr. Croft, and perhaps with greater reason, considering the intimacy between the sub-dean and the organist. Church died Jan. 5, 1741, and was buried in the south cloister of Westminster Abbey.
[ W. H. H. ]
- Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipsic: vol. 1, 1858; vol. 2, 1860; vol. 3, part 1, 1867.