answering in its construction to the principles of ancient Hebrew poetry. The chant most commonly used is a very simple one by Tallis (see p. 337 a). There have been many others specially written for it both in ancient and modern times. It has never been customary to adapt it to more elaborate forms of composition.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
CREMONA, a considerable town in Lombardy, on the river Po, was for the space of two centuries, from about 1550 to 1750, the seat of the famous Cremona school of violin-makers. The shape and construction of the violin, and the other instruments belonging to the tribe, having been finally settled by the great makers of Brescia, Caspar de Salo and Paolo Maggini (see those names), It was at Cremona that the last step in the art of violin-making was made, which led to that point of perfection from which no further progress has yet been possible or perhaps desirable. The numerous makers of the Amati family (see that name) chronologically head the list of the masters of Cremona: Antonio Stradivari and Josef Guarnerius (see those names) are the greatest of all, and their instruments have never been rivalled. The names of Andreas, Petrus, and Josef Guarnerius (brother of Andreas), Carlo Bergonzi, Guadagnini, Montagnana, Ruggieri, Storione, and Testore (see all these names) make up the list of the masters of this school, whose violins are still highly valued.
The term 'a Cremona,' or 'a Cremonese violin' is often incorrectly used for an old Italian instrument of any make.'Cremona,' as applied to an organ stop, is a mere ignorant corruption of 'Krumhorn.'
[ P. D. ]
[ J. R. S. B. ]
CRESCENDO—increasing, i. e. in loudness. One of the most important effects in music. It is expressed by cresc. and by the sign . Sometimes the word is expanded—cres … cen … do—to cover the whole space affected. As with so many other things now familiar, Beethoven was practically the inventor of the crescendo. In the works of his predecessors, even in such symphonies as the G minor and 'Jupiter' of Mozart, it is very rarely to be found. Among the most famous instances in Beethoven are that in the 'working out' (after the double bar) of the first movement of the Symphony in B♭ (No. 4). This immortal passage, which so excited the wrath of Weber, begins in the strings and drum ppp, and continues so for 13 bars; then a shade louder, pp, for 31 bars; and then a crescendo of 8 bars with the same instruments, ending in the reprise of the subject fortissimo, and with full orchestra.
Another instance, on a still more extended scale, is in the coda to the last movement of Schubert's Symphony in C (No. 9), where the operation is divided into distinct steps—first 8 bars ppp; then 24 bars pp; then 12 bars p; then 16 bar crescendo to mf; then 12 bars crescendo to f; then a crescendo of 8 bars to ff fz; and lastly a final advance of 36 more to fff.
A short crescendo of remarkable effect is found in the Finale to Schumann's D minor Symphony.In the overtures of Spontini and Rossini the crescendo is employed, with a repetition of the same figure, in a manner at once so effective, so characteristic, and so familiar, that it is only necessary to allude to it here.
[ G. ]