posta e data in luce' (Gi. Vincenti, Venice, 1597). The pieces in it are mostly comic, and are composed upon words written in the Venetian patois. A second edition of this was issued in 1603, a third in 1607, and a fourth in 1609. Two motets for eight voices are in Bodenschatz's 'Florilegium Portense' (Part 2, Nos. 111 and 150). A collection of church music by Croce, set to English words, under the title of 'Musica Sacra to Sixe Voyces,' was published in London in 1608. Several fine motets of his, full of expression and beauty, have been published with English words by Mr. Hullah in his Part Music, and nine in the collection of the Motet Society; and his madrigal 'Cynthia, thy song' is well known.
[ E. H. P. ]
CROCIATO IN EGITTO, IL, heroic opera in two acts; words by Rossi; music by Meyerbeer; produced at the Fenice, Venice, in 1824, and at the King's Theatre, London, June 30, 1825 [App. p.601 "July 23"]. Velluti appeared in it, probably the last castrato heard in London.
CROFT (or, as he sometimes wrote his name, Crofts), William, Mus. Doc., born in 1677 [App. p.601 "1678; he was baptised on Dec. 30 in that year"] at Nether Eatington, Warwickshire, was one of the children of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Blow. On the erection of an organ in the church of St. Anne, Soho, Croft was appointed organist. On July 7, 1700, he was sworn in as a gentleman extraordinary of the Chapel Royal, with the reversion, jointly with Jeremiah Clark, of the first vacant organist's place. On May 25, 1704, on the death of Francis Piggott, Croft and Clark were sworn in as joint organists, and on Clark's death in 1707, Croft was sworn in to the whole place. On the death of Dr. Blow in 1708 Croft was appointed his successor as organist of Westminster Abbey, and master of the children and composer to the Chapel Royal. It was in the discharge of the duties of the latter office that Croft produced, for the frequent public thanksgivings for victories, etc., many of those noble anthems which have gained him so distinguished a place among English church composers. In 1711 he resigned his appointment at St. Anne's in favour of John Isham, who had been his deputy for some years. In 1712 he edited for his friend, Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Dolben, sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, a collection of the words of anthems, to which he prefixed a brief historical account of English church music. On July 9, 1713, he took the degree of Doctor of Music in the University of Oxford, his exercise (performed on July 13) being two odes, one in English, the other in Latin, on the Peace of Utrecht; these were afterwards engraved and published under the title of 'Musicus Apparatus Academicus.' In 1715 Croft received an addition of £80 per annum to his salary as master of the children of the Chapel Royal for teaching the children reading, writing, and arithmetic, as well as playing on the organ and composition. In 1724 Dr. Croft published in two folio volumes, with a portrait of himself, finely engraved by Vertue, prefixed, Thirty Anthems and a Burial Service of his composition, under the title of 'Musica Sacra.' In the preface he states it to be the first essay in printing church music in that way, i. e. engraven in score on plates. Dr. Croft died Aug. 14, 1727, and was buried in the north aisle of Westminster Abbey, where a monument is erected to his memory. His biographers commonly attribute his death to an illness contracted at the coronation of George II. A glance at the dates will at once disprove this:—Croft died Aug. 14, George II was crowned Oct. 4, 1727. Croft in the earlier part of his career composed for the theatre, and produced overtures and act tunes for 'Courtship a la mode,' 1700; 'The Funeral,' 1702; 'The Twin Rivals,' 1703 [App. p.601 "1702"]; and 'The Lying Lover,' 1704 [App. p.601 "1703"]. He also published sonatas for both violin and flute. Numerous songs by him are to be found in the collections of the period, and some odes and other pieces are still extant in MS. Two psalm tunes attributed to him, St. Ann's and St. Matthew's, and a single chant in B minor, will long live in the Anglican church, even after his fine anthems have become obsolete.
[ W. H. H. ]
CROOK (Fr. Corps de rechange; Germ. Ton; Bogen). A name given to certain accessory pieces of tubing applied to the mouthpiece of brass instruments for the purpose of altering the length of the tube, and thus raising or lowering their pitch. Since these instruments can only play one scale, the sole method of enabling them to play another is to transpose the fundamental note, and this is done by the crooks. The largest number of crooks is required by the French horn, which is occasionally written for in every key, from the treble B♮ down to A♭ in the bass octave.
The term is also applied to the S-shaped metal tube connecting the body of the bassoon with the reed (Fr. bocale).
[ W. H. S. ]
CROSDILL, John, was born in London in 1751. He received his early musical education in the choir of Westminster Abbey under John Robinson and Benjamin Cooke. Upon quitting the choir he became a performer on the violoncello, and soon attained to considerable proficiency. In 1768 he became a member of the Royal Society of Musicians, and in the following year appeared at Gloucester, as principal violoncello at the meeting of the Three Choirs, a position which he continued to occupy until his retirement from his profession, with the exception of the year 1778, when the younger Cervetto filled his place, at Gloucester. In 76, on the establishment of the Concert of Ancient Music, Crosdill was appointed principal violoncello. In 77 he succeeded Peter Gillier [App. p.601 "In 78 he succeeded Nares"] as violist of the Chapel Royal, an appointment which soon became a sinecure, but which he continued to hold until his death. He also became a member of the King's band of music, an office which he likewise retained until his death. In 1782 he was appointed chamber musician to Queen Charlotte, and about the same time taught the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV, to play the violoncello. In 84 he filled the post of principal violoncello at the Commemoration of Handel.