- A Pot-pourri or arrangement of the airs of an opera or other piece for orchestra or piano.
DIVERTISSEMENT. A kind of short ballet, such as Taglioni's 'Divertissement Silesien,' sometimes mixed with songs. Also a pot-pourri or piece on given motifs, such as Schubert's 'Divertissement a l'hongroise.' Also the French term for an entr'acte. The term is no longer used.
DIVISION VIOLIN, THE, the title of a work which, during the latter part of the 17th century and for some time afterwards, was the favourite vade-mecum of amateur violinists. It was the successor of 'The Division Violist' of Christopher Simpson, first published in 1659. Both works consist of divisions, or variations, upon a given theme or subject, denominated the 'ground.' The earlier work contains instructions for performing such divisions extempore, but the later one is confined to divisions already composed. These are often upon popular song-tunes or other well-known subjects. The first edition of 'The Division Violin' appeared in 1684, engraved on copper plates, and a second part a few years later. Both parts went through several editions, the contents of which varied, but were always derived from the best composers of the day, amongst whom were Henry and Daniel Purcell, Davis Mell, John Banister, Solomon, John, and Henry Eccles, G. B. Draghi, Jeremiah Clark, etc. Some pieces by Corelli are included in some of the latter editions.
[ W. H. H. ]
DIVISIONS, in the musical nomenclature of the 17th and 18th centuries, were rapid passages—slow notes divided into quick ones—as naturally takes place in variations on a theme or ground. Hence the word can be applied to quick consecutive passages like the long semiquaver runs in Handel's bravura songs, as:—
DIVITIS, Antonius, or Antoine le Riche, a French composer, and colleague of Mouton as singer in the chapel of Louis XII, who reigned from 1498 to 1515. The following is a list of his works at present known:—(1) A 4-part mass, 'Gaude Barbara' (MS.), in the library at Cambray. (2) A 6-part Credo (MS.) in the Royal Library at Munich. (3) A mass, 'Quern dicunt homines' (of which Ambros gives a description in his history of music), in the 15th book of the collection by Pierre Attaignant of Paris. (4) A motet, 'Gloria laus,' in the 10th book of the collection of ancient motets by Pierre Attaignant (Paris 1530) who has also, in his collection of Magnificats (Paris, 1534), included one by Divitis. (5) A motet, 'Desolatorum consolator,' in 4 parts, in the 1st book of the 'Motetti della corona' (Petrucci, Venice 1514). (6) Many motets for 3 voices in the collection 'Trium vocum cantiones centum D' published by Petreius (Nuremberg 1540). (7) A setting of the words 'Ista est speciosa,' in the collection 'Bicinia Gallica, Latina, Germanica, etc.,' published by Rhaw (Wittenberg). (8) Two chansons, under the name Le Riche, in the collection 'des plus excellentes chansons' published by Nicolas Duchemin in 1551.
[ J. R. S. B. ]
DLABACZ, Gottfried Johann, librarian and choir-master of the Premonstratensian convent of Strahov, Prague; born July 17, 1758, died Feb. 4, 1820. Author of 'Allgem. historisches Künstlerlexikon für Böhmen,' etc. (Prague 1815–18, 3 vols.); 'Versuch eines Verzeichniss der vorzuglichsten Tonkünstler,' etc. (in Rigger's Statistik von Böhmen) two exact and valuable works.
DO. The syllable used in Italy and England in solfaing instead of Ut. It is said by Fétis to have been the invention of G. B. Doni, a learned Della Cruscan and writer on the music of the ancients, who died 1669. It is mentioned in the 'Musico pratico' of Bononcini (1673), where it is said to be employed 'per essere più resonante.'
DOCTOR OF MUSIC. The superior degree in music conferred by the English Universities, the inferior one being that of Bachelor. These degrees can be traced as far back as the 15th century: an outline of their history and of the history of musical study at the Universities has been given under the title Bachelor. In the ordinary course the degree of Bachelor of Music must at Oxford and Cambridge precede that of Doctor by a period of five years; but by special leave of the University the degrees may be taken together, and the honorary degree of Doctor of Music has occasionally been conferred on musicians of distinction who had not graduated Bachelors. At Dublin no interval of time is necessary, and the degrees may in all cases be taken on the same day, other conditions being fulfilled. Among Oxford Doctors of Music the following are the best known names:—John Marbeck, 1550; John Bull, 1586 [App. p.615 "1592"]; W. Heather (founder of the Professorship), 1622; Arne, 1759; Burney, 1769; Callcott, 1785 [App. p.615 "1800"]; Crotch, 1799; S. Wesley, 1839; Bishop, 1854 [App. p.615 "1853"]. Haydn received an honorary degree on his visit to Oxford in 1791, when his Symphony in G, thence called the Oxford Symphony, was performed. The same distinction is said to have been offered to Handel in 1733, when his 'Esther' was performed at Commemoration, and to have been refused by him with characteristic humour. Cambridge owns the following names:—Greene, 1730; Boyce, 1749; Randall, 1756; Nares, 1757 [App. p.615 "1756"]; Cooke, 1775; Walmisley, 1848; Sterndale Bennett, 1856; Macfarren, 1875; Sullivan, 1876; Joachim, 1877.
During the last century there was no examination for either degree; it was sufficient for the candidate to present an 'exercise,' or composition, to be performed in the Music School. Stricter regulations have been now established, with the view of giving a more genuine character to these degrees; and the following rules are in force.