of this work is wedded rendered its success all but impossible. As a matter of fact it did not succeed. The brilliant gaiety, on the other hand, of 'Don Pasquale' charmed all who heard it, as did also the delightful acting and singing of Grisi, Mario, Tamburini and Lablache, for whom the four leading parts were composed. For many years after its first production 'Don Pasquale' was always played as a piece of the present day; but the singers perceived at last that there was a little absurdity in prima donna, baritone, and basso wearing the dress of every-day life; and it is usual now, for the sake of picturesqueness in costume, to put back the time of the incidents to the last century. 'Don Pasquale' and 'Maria di Rohan' (Vienna) belong to the same year; and in this last opera the composer shows much of that earnestness and vigour for which Verdi has often been praised. Donizetti's last opera, 'Catarina Cornaro,' was produced at Naples in 1844, and apparently made no mark. This was his sixty-third work, without counting two operas which have never been played. One of these is the 'Duc d'Albe,' composed to a libretto originally meant by Scribe, its author, for Rossini, but which Rossini returned when, after 'William Tell,' he resolved to write no more for the operatic stage; the other a piece in one act composed for the Opéra Comique, and which, some years ago, used every now and then to be announced for performance. Of Donizetti's sixty-three operas, counting those only which have been represented, at least two-thirds are quite unknown in England. Donizetti, during the last three years of his life, was subject to fits of melancholy and abstraction which became more and more intense, until in 1 848 he was attacked with paralysis at Bergamo, where he expired. Buried some little distance outside the town, he was disinterred in 1876 and reburied in Bergamo itself. [App. p.617 "he was disinterred on April 26, and reburied on Sept. 12, 1875, in Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo."]
The following list of Donizetti's operas is probably not far from complete; the dates are not quite certain:—
Enrico di Borgogna, 1818.
Il Falegname di Livonia, 1819.
Le Nozze in Villa, 1820.
Zora de di Granata [App. p.617 "Zoraida di Granata"], 1822.
La lettera anonima.
Chiara e Serafina.
Il fortunato Inganno, 1823.
Alfredo il Grande.
L'ajo nell' imbarazzo, 1824.
Emilia di Liverpool.
Alabor in Granata [App. p.617 "Alahor in Granata"], 1826.
Il Castello degli Invalidi.
Il Giovedi grasso, 1827.
Olivo e Pasquale.
Il Borgomestro di Saardam.
Le Convanienzi teatrali.
Otto mese in due ore, 1828 [App. p.617 "1827"].
Elisabetta a Kenilworth. [App. p.617 "1828"]
La Regina di Golconda.
Gianni di Calais.
L'esule de Roma, 1829 [App. p.617 "1828"].
L'Elisire d'amore [App. p.617 "1832"].
Il Paria [App. p.617 "1829"].
Il Castello de Kenilworth.
Il Diluvio universale, 1830.
I pazzi per progetto.
Francesca di Foix.
Irnalda di Lambertazzi [App. p.617 "Isnelda di Lambertazzi"].
Anna Bolena, 1831 [App. p.617 "1830"].
Fausta. [App. p.617 "1832"]
Ugo Conte di Parigi, 1832.
Sancia di Castella.
Il nuovo Pourceaugnac.
Il Furioso, 1833.
L'Assedio di Calais. [App. p.617 "identical with No. 22 'Gianni di Calais'; the date here given is that of its production in Paris."]
Lucrezia Borgia, 1834. [App. p.617 "1833"]
Rosamonda d'Inghilterra. [App. p.617 "1834"]
Gemma di Vergy, 1835. [App. p.617 "1834"]
Marino Faliero. [App. p.617 "1835"]
Lucia di Lammermoor.
Il Campanello di Notte.
Roberto Devereux. [App. p.617 "1837"]
Pio di Tolomei [App. p.617 "Pia di Tolomei"], 1837.
Maria di Rudenz, 1838.
Gianni di Parigi, 1839.
Gabriella di Vergy.
La Fille du Regiment, 1840.
Linda di Chamounix. 1842.
Maria di Rohan. [App. p.617 "1843"]
Don Pasquale, 1843.
Catarina Cornaro, 1844.
Eleonora di Guienna—Rosamonda d'Inghilterra.
Les Martyrs, 1840—Poliuto.
[ H. S. E. ]
DONNA DEL LAGO, LA, opera in 2 acts, founded on 'The Lady of the Lake'; libretto by Tottola, music by Rossini. Produced at San Carlo, Naples, Oct. 4, 1819; in London, King's Theatre, Feb. 18, 1823.DONZELLI, Domenico, was born at Bergamo about 1790, and studied in his native place. In 1816 he was singing at the Valle Theatre in Rome. Rossini wrote for him the part of Torvaldo, in which he distinguished himself. At the carnival of the next year he sang at the Scala in Milan, and was engaged for two seasons. From thence he went to Venice and Naples, returning to Milan, where 'Elisa e Claudio' was written for him by Mercadante. He was very successful in 1822 at Vienna, and obtained an engagement at Paris for 1824. There he remained, at the Théâtre Italien, until the spring of 31. As early as 1822 efforts had been made, unsuccessfully, to get him engaged at the King's Theatre in London. At length, in 28, he was announced; but did not actually come until 29—making his first visit to England at the same time with Mendelssohn. When he did appear, Lord Mount-Edgcumbe thought him 'a tenor, with a powerful voice, which he did not modulate well.' Another critic, in 1830, says of him, 'He had one of the most mellifluous, robust, low tenor voices ever heard, a voice which had never by practice been made sufficiently flexible to execute Rossini's operas as they are written, but even in this respect he was accomplished and finished, if compared with the violent persons who have succeeded him in Italy. The volume of his rich and sonorous voice was real, not forced. He had an open countenance and a manly bearing on the stage, but no great dramatic power.' He was re-engaged in 1832 and 33. In 34 his place was taken by Rubini. Returning to Italy, he sang at various theatres; and in 41 at Verona and Vienna. About the end of that year he retired to Bologna. He was an associate member of the Accademia Filarmonica at Bologna, and of that of Santa Cecilia at Rome. He published a set of 'Esercizi giornalieri, basati sull'esperienza di molti anni' (Ricordi, Milan). He died at Bologna, March 31, 1873.
[ J. M. ]
DOPPIO, Italian for double. 'Canone doppio,' double canon, 4 in 2. 'Doppio movimento,' double the speed of the preceding. 'Pedale doppio,' two parts in the pedals (organ music), etc.
DORIAN, or DORIC, the first of the authentic" church modes or tones, from D to D, with its dominant A—
It resembles D minor, but with B♮ and no C♯. Many of the old German chorales were written in this mode, such as 'Vater unser';