In view however of the fact that there are a variety of means such as double dots, binds, etc. by which a composer can express with perfect accuracy the rhythmic proportions which he requires, it certainly seems advisable to employ the utmost caution in making use of such licences as the foregoing, and in particular never to introduce them into movements the rhythmical character of which is dependent on such progressions of dotted notes as the above example, such for instance as the 14th of Beethoven's 33 Variations, Op. 120, or the coda of the Fantasia, Op. 77.2. Besides the employment of the dot as a sign of augmentation of value, it is used to indicate staccato, being placed above or below the note, and written as a round dot if the staccato is not intended to be very marked, and as a pointed dash if the notes are to be extremely short. [Dash.] As an extension of this practice dots are used to denote the repetition of a single note; and they are also placed before or after a double bar as a sign of the repetition of a passage or section. In old music for the clavecin they are used as an indication of the Bebung. [Abbreviations; Bebung.]
[ F. T. ]
[ J. M. ]
DOTZAUER, Justus Johann Friedrich, one of the greatest composers, players, and teachers of the violoncello; born at Hildburghausen, Jan. 20, 1783 [App. p.618 "June"]. His teachers were Henschkel, Gleichmann, and Rüttinger—a pupil of Kittl's, and therefore only two removes from J. S. Bach. For the cello he had Kriegk of Meiningen, a famous virtuoso and teacher. He began his career in the Meiningen court band, in 1801, and remained there till 1805. He then went by way of Leipzig to Berlin, where he found and profited by B. Romberg. In 1811 he entered the King's band at Dresden, and remained there till his death, March 9 [App. p.618 "6"], 1860, playing, composing, editing, and, above all, teaching. His principal pupils were Kummer, Drechsler, C. Schuberth, and his own son, C. Ludwig. His works comprise an opera ('Graziosa,' 1841), a mass, a symphony, several overtures, 9 quartets, 12 concertos for cello and orchestra, sonatas, variations, and exercises for the cello. He edited Bach's 6 sonatas for cello solo, and left an excellent Method for his instrument.
DOUBLE BAR divides a piece or a movement into main sections, and when accompanied by dots indicates that the section on the same side with the dots is to be repeated.
The double bar is a principal feature in the symphony or sonata. In the first movement it occurs at the end of the first section, which is then repeated, and is followed by the working out, or Durchführung. In the symphonies before Beethoven, and in Beethoven's own earlier sonatas, the second section was often repeated as well as the first. In the minuet, or scherzo, with trio, both sections of each are repeated, and then after the trio the minuet is given again without the repetitions.
DOUBLE BASS (Ital. Contrabasso or Violone) is the largest of the stringed instruments played with a bow. Whether it was invented before or after the violin is still an unsettled question. In its forms it has some of the characteristics of the older gamba tribe, viz. the flat instead of the arched back, and the slanting shoulder; while, on the other hand, it has the four corners, the f-holes, and in every respect the belly of the violin, thus appearing to be a combination of the gamba and the violin, and therefore probably of a date posterior to both.
The double bass was originally mounted with three strings only, tuned thus (a). At the present time, however, basses with four strings, tuned thus (b), are used by all, except the Italian and some English players, who still prefer the three-stringed instrument on account of its greater sonority. For orchestral playing, however, the fourth string has become an absolute necessity, since modern composers very frequently use the contra E and F in obligato passages. In England, up to a very recent period, a phrase like that which opens Mendelssohn's 'Meeresstille' (c), owing to the absence of the fourth string and the consequent impossibility of producing the low F, had to be altered to the octave (d).
This and other similar musical barbarities were committed, until at the Crystal Palace the sensible plan was adopted of having half the number of the basses with four, and the other half with three stringc, thus avoiding the mutilation of phrases like the above, without sacrificing the greater
- [App. p.618 omits this footnote: "In the Pastoral Symphony, where the basses go to low C, they play in unison with the Cellos."]