dantly written for by the great masters. Haydn gives it an important part in the 'Creation,' the Passion music, and other of his works. Mozart uses it in a nonet for wind instruments (already mentioned under Clarinet), as also does Spohr in a similar combination. Beethoven employs it largely in his greatest works. It reinforces the March in the finale of the C minor symphony, takes a leading part in the choral symphony, and in the Grand Mass in D. It also appears in the overture to 'King Stephen,' and has obbligato passages in the grave-digging scene of 'Fidelio'—apropos to which see a characteristic anecdote in Thayer's Beethoven, ii. 288. Mendelssohn introduces it in his overture 'The Hebrides,' in his re-orchestration of Handel's Dettingen Te Deum, in the Reformation symphony, and elsewhere. In all cases it forms a grand bass to the reed band, completing the 16-foot octave with the six lowest notes wanting on three-stringed double bases.
[ W. H. S. ]
DOUBLE CHANT, a chant equal in length to two single chants, and covering two verses; peculiar to the English church, and not introduced till after the Restoration. [Chant, p. 338.]
DOUBLE CONCERTO, a concerto for two solo instruments and orchestra, as Bach's for two Pianos, Mozart's for Violin and Viola (Köchel, 364); or Mendelssohn's (MS.) for Piano and Violin.
DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT is the accompaniment of a subject or melody by another melody, so contrived as to be capable of use either below or above the original subject. See examples given under Counterpoint (p. 408).
DOUBLE FLAT. If the flat lowers a note by a semitone, the double flat lowers it by two. The sign for the double sharp is abbreviated, but that for the double flat remains simply ♭♭, the corrective to which is either ♮♭ or ♭ at pleasure. On keyed instruments the double flat of a note is a whole tone lower:—thus A♭♭ = G♮, C♭♭ = B♭. The French term is double bémol; the German one doppel-B. The German nomenclature for the notes is Eses, Asas, Deses, etc.
DOUBLE FUGUE, a common term for a fugue on two subjects, in which the two start together, as in the following, by Sebastian Bach:—
or in D. Scarlatti's harpsichord fugue in D minor; or Handel's organ fugue, quoted under Countersubject, p. 409 b.
[ G. ]
DOUBLE SHARP raises a note by two semitones, and is denoted by a x, probably an abbreviation of ♯♯. It is singular that the sign should be a less complicated one than that for the single sharp. On instruments of fixed intonation C x = D♮, E x = F♯, etc. The French call it double dièse, and the Germans doppel kreuz. The Germans call the notes eisis, fisis, gisis, etc.
DOUBLE STOPPING is sounding on the violin or other instrument of that tribe two notes simultaneously. Such notes are termed 'double stops.' An 'open note' is produced by merely striking the string with the bow without touching it with the fingers of the left hand—so that the string vibrates in its whole length. A 'stopped note' is a note produced by putting a finger of the left hand on the string, so that the vibration of the string is 'stopped' at a certain point.
Strictly speaking, the term 'double-stopping' ought only to be applied to the simultaneous sounding of two 'stopped' notes; it is, however, indiscriminately used for any double sounds, whether produced with or without the aid of the open strings. The playing of double stops is one of the most difficult parts of the technique of the violin.
[ P. D. ]
DOUBLE TONGUEING, a method of articulation applicable to the flute, the cornet à pistons, and some other brass instruments. The oboe, bassoon, and clarinet, are susceptible only of single tongueing, which signifies the starting of the reed- vibrations by a sharp touch from the tip of the tongue similar to the percussion action in harmoniums. It requires long practice to give the necessary rapidity to the tongue muscles co-operating for this end. Single tongueing is phonetically represented by a succession of the lingual letter T, as in the word 'rat-tat-tat.' Double tongueing aims at alternating the linguo-dental explosive T with another explosive consonant produced differently, such as the linguo-palatals D or K, thus relieving the muscles by alternate instead of repeated action. The introduction of the mouthpiece into the cavity of the mouth itself prevents such an alternation in the three instruments above named, but it is possible in the flute and cornet. Any intermediate vowel sound may be employed. The words commonly recommended for double-tongueing are 'tucker' or 'ticker.' Triple tongueing is also possible; and even four blows of the tongue against the teeth and palate have been achieved and termed quadruple tongueing. Indeed the system may be farther extended by employing words such as 'Tikatakataka', in which dental and palatal explosives are judiciously alternated.
The obstruction to the wind-current is not so complete in double as in single tongueing, nor is the mechanical starting of the reed present in the latter. But it is notwithstanding capable of producing a good staccato effect.
[ W. H. S. ]
DOUBLES (Fr.). The old name for 'Variations,' especially in harpsichord music. The doubles consisted of mere embellishments of the