Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Wagner, Weber, Schubert, Chopin, Berlioz, and Meyerbeer, which, without being technical, are often happily characteristic. These have been translated into English by F. R. Ritter (Boston, U.S., 1870). Still more valuable is his last publication, 'Aus den Tonwelt' (1877), containing his latest contributions to the 'Deutsche Rundschau,' etc. His compositions are ambitious, and embrace overtures to 'Hafiz' and 'The Winter's Tale,' a 'Spring symphony'—performed with success at Berlin and Leipzig—a Sonate romantique, Lieder, etc. [App. p.626 "date of death, Jan. 4, 1884."]
EIN' FESTE BURG. Luther's version of Psalm xlvi. The hymn was probably written at Coburg 1530; the tune seems to have appeared first in 'Psalmen und geistliche Lieder,' Strassburg, Wolfgang Köphl, probably 1538. The form of the tune now in use is that given by Sebastian Bach in various cantatas, especially in that for the 'Festo Reformationis' (Bachgesellschaft, xviii. No. 80), and differs somewhat from Luther's original. The words have also been modernised. We give both words and melody in their first shape from von Winterfeld's 'Luther's deutsche geistliche Lieder.'
The tune has been used as the foundation of various pieces of music, such as Bach's cantata just referred to; the Finale of Mendelssohn's 'Reformation Symphony'; a Fest-ouverture by O. Nicolai; an overture by Raff; and Wagner's 'Kaisermarsch.' It is also largely employed by Meyerbeer in the Huguenots.
EISTEDDFOD (Welsh, 'a sitting of learned men'). These musical and literary festivals and competitions originated in the triennial assembly of the Welsh bards usually held at Aberffraw, the royal seat of the Princes of North Wales and Anglesey, at Dynevor in South Wales, and at Mathravael, Merionethshire, for the regulation of poetry and music, for the conferring of degrees, and electing to the chair of the Eisteddfod. The antiquity of this ceremony is very high, mention being made of an Eisteddfod in the 7th century at which King Cadwaladr presided. Those bards only who acquired the degree of 'Pencerdd' (chief minstrel) were authorised to teach, and the presiding bard was called Bardd Cadeiriawg—the bard of the chair—because after election he was installed in a magnificent chair, and was decorated with a silver or gold chain, which he wore on his breast as a badge of office. His emoluments from fees were considerable. Persons desiring to take degrees in music were presented to the Eisteddfod by a Pencerdd, who vouched for their fitness, the candidates being required to pass through a noviciate of three years, and to study for further several periods of three years before advancement to each of the three higher degrees. It is now difficult to define the status of the titles conferred, but they cannot be considered more than historical names or complimentary distinctions, often bestowed by the Eisteddfodau upon persons who had but little knowledge of music. After being discontinued for some time the Eisteddfodau appear to have been revived in the reigns of Edward IV, Henry VII, Henry VIII, and Elizabeth. In 1450 what has been called 'The great Eisteddfod of Carmarthen,' was held in that town, with the king's sanction; and another meeting was held in South Wales in Henry VII's reign, of which no records are preserved. In 1523, at Caerwys, Flintshire, an Eisteddfod was held, at which many eminent men were present; and on May 26, 1567, there was another at the same place, under a commission granted by Queen Elizabeth. Still more memorable was the congress at Bewpyr Castle in 1681, under the auspices of Sir Richard Bassett. In 1771 the Gwyneddigion, a society established in London for the cultivation of the Welsh language, promoted several of these meetings in North Wales; and in 1819 the Cambrian Society held a great Eisteddfod at Carmarthen, at which the Bishop of St. David's presided. Mr. John Parry, who was a chief promoter of this society, and its registrar, edited the Welsh melodies for it, and in recognition of his efforts a concert was given to him at Freemasons' Hall on May 24, 1826, at which Miss Stephens, Braham, Mori, Lindley, and others assisted, followed by a dinner, at which Lord Clive presided. In later years the revival of these meetings was promoted by Sir Benjamin Hall (afterwards Lord Llanover); and at one of them, held in 1828 at Denbigh, the Duke of Sussex was present, and Sir Edward Mostyn president. The Eisteddfodau are now annually held at several places in the Principality, the leading Welsh musicians, including Mme. Edith Wynne and Mr. Brinley Richards, taking part in the concerts, which usually follow the competitions for the prizes. There is no special day for holding the Eisteddfod, but according to an ancient regulation the meeting is not considered 'legal' unless it be proclaimed a twelvemonth and a day. Strictly speaking, the Eisteddfodau are no longer 'national,' except that they are held in Wales, and retain some of the quaint formalities which marked the ancient meetings. [App. p.626 "A grand Eisteddfod was held in London at the Albert Hall, in Aug., 1887, the preparatory ceremony of the Gorsedd, or proclamation, having been gone through one year before in the Temple Gardens."]
, born at Breslau, Oct. 22, 1832, now living in Berlin; founder in 1868 of the 'Gesellschaft für Musikforschung,' and contri-