and Sosia,' and others. The 'Intrepidi' in 1607 represented with great pomp the Pastorale called 'La Filla di Sciro' by Guidubaldo Bonarelli.
Frescobaldi was a native of Ferrara and made his studies there.
[ C. M. P. ]
FERRARESE DEL BENE, the sobriquet of Francesca Gabrielli, an Italian singer, native of Ferrara. When Burney was in Venice, in Aug. 1770, he heard at the Ospedaletto an orphan girl la Ferrarese with an 'extraordinary compass' and a 'fair natural voice.' She sang in London from 1784 to 87 in Cherubim's 'Giulio Sabino' and other parts, but without much success. In 1789 she was prima donna in Vienna. Mozart wrote for her the Rondo 'Al desio,' introduced into the part of the Countess in Figaro on its revival Aug. 89, and she played Fiordiligi in 'Cosi fan tutte' at its production Jan. 26, 90. Mozart did not think much of her, for in speaking of Allegrandi he says, 'she is much better than the Ferrarese, though that is not saying a great deal.' She probably owed her good fortune to her pretty eyes and mouth, and to her intrigue with da Ponte, with whom she lived as his mistress for three years. In the end she quarrelled with the other singers, and was sent from Vienna by the Emperor.
[ G. ]
FERRARI, Benedetto, called 'della Tiorba,' an Italian musician, and composer of words and music for the species of Italian dramas called 'dramme per musica,' was born most probably at Reggio in 1597; as according to a letter, now in the archives of Modena, written by him to the Duke of Modena in 1623, his reputation as a musician, and especially as a player on the theorbo, was by that time considerable. It was largely owing to him that the 'dramma musicale' took such deep root in Italy and Germany, and herein lies his chief interest for us. His opera 'Andromeda,' set to music by Manelli and brought out at the Teatro San Cassiano at Venice in 1637, was tne first opera performed before a mixed audience. In 1639 followed his 'Adone,' set by Monteverde, and 'Armida,' of which he wrote both words and music. Its success induced Ferrari to devote himself more to composition than before. He remained in Venice till 1644, when he was invited to Vienna by the Emperor Ferdinand. A ballet by him was performed at the Diet of Ratisbon in 1653. In the same year he was appointed maestro di capella to Duke Alfonso of Modena, on whose death in 1662 he was dismissed, but reappointed in 1674, and died in possession of the post Oct. 22, 1681. His librettos were collected and printed at Milan and Piacenza, and passed through several editions; none of these collections however are complete. The library at Modena contains several of his MSS., including the ballet 'Dafne in alloro' (Vienna, 1651). We have not sufficient materials to form any opinion on the style of his music. He published at Venice in 1638 'Musiche varie a voce sola,' in which, according to Burney, the term 'Cantata' occurs for the first time, although the invention of this kind of piece was claimed by Barbara Strozzi twenty years later.
[ F. G. ]
FERRARI, Domenico, an eminent Italian violin-player, born at the beginning of the 18th century. He was a pupil of Tartini, and lived for a number of years at Cremona. About the year 1749 he began to travel, and met with great success at Vienna, where he was considered the greatest living violin-player. In 1753 he became a member of the band of the Duke of Würtemberg at Stuttgart, of which Nardini was at that time leader. If Ferrari was a pupil of Tartini, he certainly, according to contemporary critics, did not retain the style of that great master in after life. He had an astonishing ability in the execution of octave-runs and harmonics, and appears altogether to have been more a player than a musician. He twice visited Paris, and played there with great success. He died at Paris in 1780, according to report, by the hand of a murderer. Ferrari published a set of 6 Violin-Sonatas (Paris and London), which however are now forgotten.
[ P. D. ]
FERRARI, Giacomo Gottfredo, a cultivated and versatile musician, son of a merchant at Roveredo, born there 1759. He learned the pianoforte at Verona, and the flute, violin, oboe, and double-bass at Roveredo, and studied theory under Pater Marianus Stecher at the convent of Mariaberg near Chur. After his father's death he accompanied Prince Lichtenstein to Rome and Naples, and studied for two years and a half under Latilla at Paisiello's recommendation. Here also he made the acquaintance of M. Campan, Marie Antoinette's master of the household, and went with him to Paris, where he was appointed accompanyist to the new Théâtre Feydeau. In 1793 the company was dispersed, and Ferrari shortly afterwards left France. Having travelled for some time he finally settled in London, where he composed a very large number of works, including 4 operas and 2 ballets. In 1804 he married Miss Henry, a well-known pianist. From 1809 to 1812 he suffered from loss of sight. In 1814 he went to Italy with Broadwood the pianoforte-maker, and visited Naples, Venice, etc., returning in 1816. He died in London Dec. 1842. He was an active teacher of singing, and published a 'Treatise on Singing* in 2 vols., of which a French translation appeared in 1827. His 'Studio di musica pratica e teorica' (London) is a useful treatise. Two of his French songs, 'Qu'il faudrait de philosophie' and 'Quand l'amour nacquit à Cythère,' were extremely popular in their day. His acquaintance with almost every contemporary musician of importance gives a historical value to his book 'Anedotti ... occorsi nella vita di G. G. Ferrari,' 2 vols. London, 1830. Besides the operas, ballets, and songs already named, Ferrari composed an extraordinary quantity of music for the voice, pianoforte, flute, and harp.
[ F. G. ]
FERREL, Jean François, musician in Paris about the middle of the 17th century, wrote