were the 'Musikalischer Hausschatz,' a collection of Lieder, &c. (Leipzig 1843), and 'Die deutsche Liedertafel' (ibid. 46). As an author he published various volumes and pamphlets, but none of which the names are worth preserving. Besides the Zeitung, he was a prolific contributor to the Conversations-Lexicons of Ersch and Gruber, and of Brockhaus, and to Schilling's 'Lexicon der Tonkunst.' He left in MS. a history of music, upon which he had been engaged for 20 years. Fink was at once narrow and superficial, and a strong conservative; and the Zeitung did not maintain under his editorship the position it held in the musical world under Rochlitz.
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FIORAVANTI, Valentino, composer, born in Rome 1770, studied under Sala at the 'Pietá de' Turchini' at Naples. His first opera 'Coi matti il savio si perde' produced at the Pergola in Florence 1791, was followed by at least 50 others, all comic. He was invited to Paris in consequence of the success of 'Le Cantatrici Villane' (1806 [App. p.636 "1803"]) and there wrote 'I virtuosi ambulanti' (1807). These two were on the whole his best operas, though all possessed a genuine vein of comedy, a freshness, and an ease in the part-writing, which concealed their triviality and want of originality, and made them very popular in their day. In June 1816 he succeeded Jannaconi as maestro di capella to St. Peter's at Rome, and while in that post wrote a quantity of church music very inferior to his operas. [App. p.636 "'Adelaida' was produced at Naples in 1817."] His character was gentle and retiring; and the last few years of his life were spent very quietly. He died at Capua, on his way to Naples, June 16, 1837. Like Paisiello and other considerable Italian composers of that date, Fioravanti was extinguished by Rossini.His son Vincenzo, born 1810 [App. p.636 "born April 5, 1799, died March 28, 1877"], also composed operas with ephemeral success.
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FIORITURE, flowerets. The Italian term for ornaments—scales, arpeggios, turns, shakes, etc.—introduced by singers into airs. In the last century airs were often written plain, and were embroidered by the singers according to their taste and ability. Such songs as 'O dolce concento' and 'Nel cor piú' were seldom sung alike by two different singers. Rossini's early airs were written for the same treatment—witness 'Non piú mesta.' A remnant of it many will still remember in the long tasteless cadenzas indulged in at the close of Handel's airs. This was all very well as long as singers were also good musicians, and as long as the singing was more thought of than what was sung. But now these things are changed, and the composer writes exactly what he intends to be sung—notes, nuances, and expression.The practice of 'fioriture' was not unknown to players in the orchestra as well as to singers. Spohr gives some amusing and almost incredible instances of such freaks of Horns and Clarinets in the Tutti of his 'Scena Cantante' Concerto, at Rome in 1816 (Selbstbiographie, i. 330).
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FIS and FISIS, the German terms for F♯ and F×. The equivalent French terms are Fa diése and Fa double diése.FISCHER. A family of singers of the 18th and 19th centuries. The founder was Ludwig, a Bass, of whom Otto Jahn (Mozart, 2nd ed. i. 661, 630) speaks as 'an artist of extraordinary gift, for compass, power, and beauty of voice, and artistic perfection both in singing and playing, probably the greatest German bass-singer.' He was born at Mayence, 1745, and well known