them with the copyright of the oratorio, and prepared a petition to parliament praying that a bill might be passed to secure to them the right in perpetuity; but Handel indignantly repudiated any such intention, and the petition never reached the House. On the completion of the chapel Handel presented it with an organ, which he opened on May 1, 1750, when the attendance was so large that he was compelled to repeat the performance. The composer by his will bequeathed 'a fair copy of the score and all the parts of the Messiah' to the Hospital, and on his death a dirge and funeral were performed in the chapel on May 26, 1759, under the direction of his amanuensis, John Christopher Smith, who, with his full concurrence, had been appointed the first organist. In July 1774 Dr. Burney proposed to the governors a scheme for forming a Public Music School at the Hospital for the training of the children; but strong opposition was raised to it, and it was never proceeded with. The chapel services are still noteworthy for their music, in which the professional choir is assisted by the children, under the direction of Mr. Willing, the organist. (1878.)
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FOURNEAUX, Napoléon, born May 21, 1808, at Léard (Ardennes), originally a watch-maker, improved the Accordion. In 1830 he settled in Paris; in 36 bought Chameroy's organ-factory, and introduced great improvements in the manufacture of all reed instruments blown by wind. At the exhibition of 1844 he received a silver medal for his 'orgues expressives.' He originated the idea of the percussion action in harmoniums. He died at Aubanton (Aisne), July 19, 1846.
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FOURNIER, Pierre Simon, engraver and type-founder, born in Paris Sept. 15, 1712, died there Oct. 8, 1768. He greatly improved the engraving of music in France, which up to his day was still effected by punches on the model of those cut by Hautin in 1525. He replaced the lozenge-shaped notes by round ones, and made music altogether easier to read, although his notes were still thin and poor compared to those of later tunes. He published 'Essai d'un nouveau caractéres de fonte pour l'impression de la musique, etc.' (Paris 1756), and a 'Traité historique et critique sur l'origine et les progrés des caractéres de fonte pour l'impression de la musique' (Paris 1765), which, though incomplete and occasionally incorrect, contains interesting information on music printing in France. Giacomo Falconi of Venice seems to have attained a similar result almost simultaneously with Fournier. Falconi published at Venice in 1765 'Manifesto d'uno nuova impresa di stampare la musica, etc.'; and Paolucci's 'Arte pratica di contrapunto' (1765) was printed in the new characters.
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FOURTH is an interval comprising two whole tones and a semitone. It is called a fourth because four notes are passed through in going from one extreme of the interval to the other, for which reason the Greeks called it δια τεσσαρων—Diatessaron. The ratio of the vibrational numbers of its limiting sounds is 3:4. It is in fact a perfect consonance, though regarded as a discord in the old Diatonic style.
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FRA DIAVOLO, OU L'HOTELLERIE DE TERRACINE. Opéra comique in 3 acts; words by Scribe, music by Auber. Produced at the Opéra comique Jan. 28, 1830; in London—in English, adapted by Rophino Lacy—at Drury Lane, Nov. 3, 1831; in Italian, at the Lyceum by the Royal Italian Opera July 4–11, 1857.
FRÄNZL, Ferdinand, eminent violinist and composer, born in 1770 at Schwetzingen in the Palatinate. He was a pupil of his father, Ignaz Fränzl, and performed, when only seven years of age, a concerto at a court-concert in Mannheim, where he entered the band of the Elector in 1782. From 1785 he began to travel with his father. During a prolonged stay at Strassburg he studied composition under Richter and Pleyel, and later under Padre Mattei at Bologna. He appears to have been less successful at Paris than at Rome, Naples, and Palermo. Returned to Mannheim in 1792, he took C. Cannabich's place as leader of the band, but in 1802 again started for a tour to Russia. At this period Fränzl was generally acknowledged to be one of the best of living violin-players, and his compositions enjoyed great popularity. Spohr heard him in 1802 at St. Petersburg, and gives an interesting account of him:—'Fränzl was at that time the foremost of violin-players in St. Petersburg. He still follows the old method of holding the violin on the right side of the tail-piece, and is therefore obliged to play with his head bent down. [Violin.] He also lifts the right arm very high, and has a bad habit of raising his eyebrows whenever he plays something expressive. His execution is neat and clear. In the slow movements he performs a great many runs, shakes, and cadenzas, with rare precision and distinctness; but as soon as he plays forte his tone is rough and unpleasant, owing to his drawing the bow too slowly and too close to the bridge, and pressing it too much on the string. Quick passages he executes with good intonation and very clearly, but invariably in the middle of the bow, and consequently without light and shade.' On a later occasion Spohr comments less favourably on him, and describes both his style and his compositions as old-fashioned; but this only shows that Fränzl had not kept pace with the progress made in violin-playing towards the end of the last and beginning of the present century, and could not stand comparison with the great masters of the Paris school, still less with Spohr himself.
In 1806 Fränzl returned to Munich, and was appointed conductor of the opera. He did not however give up travelling, and played at various times in Paris, Amsterdam, Vienna, and Leipzig. In 1823 he made a second journey to Italy. He then retired to Geneva, but finally settled at Mannheim, and died there in 1833. Fränzl was a fertile composer. He published 8 concertos and 4 concertinos for the violin, 1 concer-