from Italy, took root in this country, and remained here in great public favour, for many years' (Burney). Galli was frequently employed in male parts on the stage. Though her manner was spirited and interesting, she was little noticed by the public till she sung in Handel's 'Judas,' 1746, when she gained such applause in the air ''Tis Liberty,' that she was encored in it every night, and became an important personage among singers. She had already sung in 'Joseph,' 1744, and she subsequently performed principal parts in 'Joshua,' 'Solomon,' 'Susanna,' 'Theodora,' 'Jephtha,' &c. She is said to have been a favourite pupil of Handel (Cradock). Twenty years later she sang in Sacchini's 'Perseo' (1774) and 'Motezuma' (1775). She became the companion of the celebrated Miss Kay, and was with her when she was assassinated by Hackman, April 7, 1779. She afterwards fell into extreme poverty, and, about the age of seventy, was induced to sing again in oratorios. She appeared at Covent Garden as late as 1797. Lord Mount-Edgcumbe had the curiosity to go, and heard her sing 'He was despised.' Her voice was cracked and trembling, but it was easy to perceive that her school was good. She died in 1804.
[ J. M. ]
GALLIA. A 'Motet' for Soprano solo, Chorus, and Orchestra; the words from the Lamentations, music by Gounod: first performed at the Opening of the International Exhibition, Albert Hall, London, May I, 1871.
[ G. ]
GALLIA, Maria, incorrectly called Maria Margherita by Burney, was a sister of Margherita de l'Epine, and pupil of Nicolo Haym. She appeared for the first time at the Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre in 1703. She sang in 1706 and 8 in 'Camilla,' in the libretti of which she is called Joanna Maria. In the former year she also performed the principal rôle in the 'Temple of Love' by Saggione, to whom she was then married. Documents (in the possession of the present writer), signed by this composer, and by his wife as Maria Gallia Saggione, show that they received respectively £150 and £700 for a season of nine months,—large sums at that early date. Gallia appeared in Clayton's 'Rosamond' at its production in 1707. She sang songs also at the Haymarket Theatre 'in Italian and English,' to strengthen the attraction (Daily Courant). At this time she must have been very young, for we find her singing in 'Alexander Balus,' 'Joshua,' &c. in 1748; unless, indeed, her name is incorrectly put for that of Galli.
[ J. M. ]
GALLIARD (Ital. Gagliarda; Fr. Gaillarde). An old dance, as its name implies, of a merry character. 'I did think,' says Shakspeare, 'by the excellent constitution of thy leg that it was formed under the star of a galliard.' It was generally in 3-4, but sometimes in common time. It was described by Praetorius as 'an invention of the devil,' and 'full of shameful and obscene gestures, and immodest movements.' From the fact of its coming from Rome it was also called Romanesca. Its rhythms were strongly marked. The following quotation gives the opening bars of a gagliarda of the 17th century:—
[ E. P. ]
GALLIARD, John Ernest, son of a perruquier of Zell, in Hanover, where he was born about 1687. He studied composition under Farinelli—uncle of the singer, and director of the concerts at Hanover—and Steffani. He soon attained distinction as a performer on the oboe, and coming to England about 1706 was appointed chamber musician to Prince George of Denmark. On the death of Draghi, the then sinecure appointment of organist at Somerset House was bestowed upon him. He speedily learned English, and composed a Te Deum and Jubilate and three anthems ('I will magnify Thee, Lord,' 'O Lord God of Hosts,' and 'I am well pleased'), which were performed at St. Paul's and the Chapel Royal on occasions of thanksgiving for victories. In 1712 he composed the music for Hughes's opera 'Calypso and Telemachus,' which was performed at the Queen's Theatre in the Haymarket. [App. p.644 "in 1713 he was playing in the orchestra at the opera, having a solo part in the accompaniment of the last air in the first act of Handel's 'Teseo.'"] From about 1717 he was employed by Rich to furnish the music for the curious admixtures of masque and harlequinade which he exhibited under the name of pantomime, and produced several excellent compositions for pieces of that description. In 1728 he set for two voices, cantata-wise, the Morning Hymn of Adam and Eve from Milton's 'Paradise Lost.' This admirable composition was afterwards enlarged by Dr Benjamin Cooke by the addition of orchestral accompaniments and the expansion of some of the movements into choruses. In 1742 Galliard published a translation of Pier Francesco Tosi's 'Opinioni di Cantori Antichi e Moderni, o sieno Osservazioni sopra il Canto Figurato,' under the title of 'Observations on the Florid Song; or, Sentiments on the Ancient and Modern Singers.' In 1745 he had a benefit concert at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, at which were performed his music for the choruses in the tragedy 'Julius Caesar,' by John Sheffield, Duke of Buckinghamshire, and a piece for 24 bassoons and 4 double basses. Galliard died early in 1749, leaving a small but curious collection of music, which was dispersed by auction after his decease. Besides the pieces mentioned he composed music for 'Pan and Syrinx,' opera, 1717; 'Jupiter and Europa,' pantomime, 1723; 'The Necromancer; or, Harlequin Dr. Faustus,' pantomime, 1723; 'Harlequin Sorcerer, with The Loves of Pluto and Proserpine' (the second title afterwards changed to 'The Rape of Proserpine'), pantomime, 1725; 'Apollo and Daphne; or, The Burgomaster tricked,' pantomime, 1726; 'The Royal Chace; or, Merlin's Cave,' a musical entertainment, 1736, in which occurred the famous hunting song 'With early horn,' which
- Erroneously attributed to Greber by Burney.