nent writer on the history of music, born Aug. 12, 1720, at Horb on the Neckar. He received a thorough literary education, including music, at Ludwigsburg. In 1736 he entered the Benedictine monastery of St. Blaise in the Black Forest, was ordained priest in 1744, and appointed Prince-Abbot Oct. 15, 1764. Historical research, especially in music, was his favourite pursuit, and a taste for this he endeavoured to infuse into the convent. The library afforded him ample materials, and much valuable matter hitherto unused. But this was not enough. Between the years 1759–65 he travelled through Germany, France, and Italy, making important discoveries, and establishing relations with various learned societies. His acquaintance with Padre Martini at Bologna was of special service to him. Their objects were closely connected—Gerbert's work being a history of Church music, Martini's one of music in general. In 1762 Gerbert published his prospectus, and invited contributions, which were furnished him in abundance. The first volume was nearly complete when a fire at the monastery in 1768 destroyed all the materials which had been collected; in 1774, however, the complete work appeared at St. Blaise, in 2 vols. 4to, with 40 engravings, under the title 'De cantu et musica sacra a prima ecclesiae aetate usque ad praesens tempus'; a book which has ever since formed the foundation of all musical scholarship, although naturally requiring much correction at the present day. A description of it appears in Forkel's 'Geschichte der Musik,' which without Gerbert's work would possibly never have been written, or would at any rate have been published later and in a far less complete form. Ten years after, in 1784, appeared Gerbert's second great work 'Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum,' 3 vols. also printed at St. Blaise; a collection of treatises by the most important writers on music, recently continued by Coussemaker. Three more works, also printed at St. Blaise, deserve special mention, 'Iter alemannicum, accedit italicum et gallicum' (1765; 2nd ed. 1773; German ed. by Kochler, Ulm 1767), which contains the account of his travels, and abounds in interesting particulars; 'Vetus liturgia alemannica' (2 vols, 1776); and 'Monumenta veteris liturgiae alemannica' (2 vols, 1777). He also made the Latin translation of 'Opusculum theodiseum de Musica,' a treatise in 4 chapters written in old German by Notker (Labes) a monk of St. Gall in the 10th century (see Becker's 'Literatur der Musik,' p. 68). His other writings are mainly theological. Some offertories of his composition were published at Augsburg.
Gerbert died May 13, 1793. He realised the ideal of virtue and industry in his illustrious order; his gentle character and engaging manners secured the friendship of all who came in contact with him. Bonndorf (4 leagues from St. Blaise, and the chief town of the principality) is indebted to him for a hospital and house of correction, over the entrance of which is the inscription 'Dedicated by Martin II. to the poor, and to the improvement of mankind.' He also built the fine church of the Convent (after the model of the Pantheon at Rome), and founded and endowed an orphanage for the 5 surrounding districts. The peasants of the neighbourhood, of their own accord, erected his statue in the market-place of Bonndorf, a most unusual tribute of respect. His memory still lives in the district. Carl Ferdinand Schmalholz, the able musical director of the Cathedral at Constance, possesses an excellent half-length oil picture of Gerbert.
[ C. F. P. ]
The third of the three varieties of sixth called in the old books French, Italian, and German sixths. It is the chord of the Augmented or Extreme Sixth when accompanied by the major third and fifth of its bass.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
GERO, Jhan, commonly known as Maistre Jan, Jhan, or Jehan, and styled 'Joannes Gallus' in the title of one of his publications, was probably a native of France or Belgium. His earliest known work is a motet, 'Benignissime Domine Jesu,' in the 'Motetti della Corona' (Petrucci, Fossombrone 1519), so we may assume that he was born towards the close of the 15th century. He was chapel-master of the cathedral at Orvieto, and afterwards held a similar position at the court of Hercules II, Duke of Ferrara, and his successor Alfonso. Gero was a most voluminous composer of motets and madrigals. For the former, like Josquin and Lassus, he made choice of most important subjects, setting to music the ten commandments, the conversion of St. Paul, and parables from the New Testament. As a madrigal composer he was very successful, and enjoyed a lasting popularity. In a collection of madrigals for 3 voices printed by Gardane in 1597 (of which the bass part is in the British Museum) 20 numbers, more than a third of the whole, are by Gero. Eitner's 'Bibliographie der Musik-Sammelwerke' (Berlin, 1877) gives a list of more than 100 of Gero's motets and madrigals. Of these 32 appear in the 'Trium vocum cantiones centum' (Nuremburg, Petreius, 1541), 14 in the Second Book of Madrigals (Venice, Gardane, 1543), and 9 in the 'Madrigals for 3 Voices' (Venice, Gardane, 1561). The rest appear in smaller numbers in various collections printed between 1519 and 1590.
[ J. R. S. B. ]
GERNSHEIM, Friedrich, eminent player, composer, and conductor, born of Hebrew parents at Worms July 17, 1839. He received his first instruction in music from his mother, an able pianiste, and was then put successively into the hands of Liebe, Pauer, and Rozenheim. He also learned the violin, and under Hauff the theory of music. His ability might have tempted him to become a virtuoso, but he fortunately preferred a different path, and at the Conservatorium of Leipsic, under Moscheles, Hauptmann, Rietz and Richter, during the years 1852–5 underwent a thorough musical education. He followed