graved, but form part of the large collection of his autographs in the library of the Conservatoire. [App. p.652 "Add to list of works an oratorio, 'L'Arche d'alliance,' performed at the Concert Spirituel; Choruses to the tragedy of 'Electra' (1783); 'Berthe' (with Philidor and Botson, Brussels 1775); operas, 'Hylas et Silvie,' 'La Reprise de Thoulon,' and 'Le Perigourdin,' not publicly performed. It should also be noticed that the introduction of horns into the orchestra is attributed to him, and that the employment of the gong or tam-tam in his funeral music in honour of Mirabeau is the first instance of its use as an orchestral instrument."]
Gossec's life may be held up as a model to young artists; without money or friends, we may even say without genius, and without the aid of masters, he educated himself, and by toil and study attained the rank of a classical composer. His career presents one unfortunate peculiarity. No sooner had he worked out an original idea than some man of genius stepped forward and appropriated the ground he had won. As a writer of symphonies he saw his 'Chasse' and his 2ist Symphony in D eclipsed by those of Haydn; as a composer of sacred music he was surpassed by Mozart, in spite of the long-continued popularity of his 'Messe des Morts'; and at the theatre he was entirely thrown into the shade by Grétry and Gluck. In spite of all this, however, the French school has good reason to be proud of him; he was completely exempt from envy, and, with a disinterestedness truly praiseworthy, did all in his power to promote the works of his great rivals. Nature and his many struggles had made him usually very reserved, but he could be kind on occasion, as he was to Mozart in 1778, who hits him off in a line—'Mein sehr guter Freund und sehr trockener Mann' (April 5).
An oil-painting of him ornaments one of the rooms in the library of the Conservatoire. There is another small portrait engraved by Frémy after Brun, and a marble bust by Caillouete, a pupil of Cartellier. The Belgians, always ready to show honour to the illustrious men of their own country, have lately erected at Vergnies a monument to the memory of Gossec, in the form of a quadrangular fountain surmounted by his bust. It was inaugurated Sept. 9, 1877.
In England Gossec is almost entirely unknown. Probably the only piece published here is the 'O Salutaris' named above, and the fine library of the Sacred Harmonic Society contains but one of his compositions.
[ G. C. ]
GÖTTERDÄMMERUNG. The fourth and last piece in Wagner's 'Ring des Nibelungen,' first performed at Bayreuth, Aug. 17, 1876.
[ G. ]
GOUDIMEL, CLAUDE, a celebrated teacher and composer, born at Vaison, in the neighbourhood of Avignon, in the early part of the 16th century. He betook himself to Rome, and opened a music school there, numbering amongst his pupils such distinguished musicians as Animuccia, Bettini (called 'il Fornarino'), 'Alessandro della Viola,' Nanini, and, above all, Palestrina. Masses and motets, written at this period, are preserved in the Vatican and Vallicellan libraries at Rome. Eitner's Bibliographie der Musik-Sammelwerke (Berlin, 1877) gives a list of more than 60 compositions printed between the years 1549 and 1597. The 4th book 'Ecclesiasticarum cantionum,' etc. (Antwerp, Tylman Susato 1554), has a motet, 'Domine quid multiplicati sunt,' which Burney has printed in score in his History. In 1555 Goudimel appears to have settled in Paris; and the work, entitled 'Q. Horatii odæ omnes ad rythmos musicos redactæ' is issued in the joint names of Duchemin and Goudimel. This partnership lasted for a short time, probably only for the purpose of bringing out this particular work, for we find in the next year Duchemin's name alone on the title-page of his publications. Goudimel commenced writing music to the whole psalms of David in the form of motets, but did not live to complete the work. He also put music to the French metrical version of the Psalms of Marot and Beza, the music being in 4 parts, the counterpoint note against note, and the melody in the tenor (Lyons, Jaqui, 1565). The melodies are those used by Claude Le Jeune in a similar work, and were probably of German origin. The translation had not been originally intended for any particular religous sect, or for any form of public worship. The Sorbonne saw nothing in it contrary to the faith, and the Catholics at first used it freely. It is thus doubtful whether Goudimel's work, which he expressly states in his preface is for private use only, is enough to prove that he became a Protestant. It is certainly not enough to justify Hawkins (Hist. ch. 88) in denying the possibility of his having lived at Rome or having taught Palestrina. But Calvin's introduction of psalm, singing into the public worship of his followers stamped it as heretical, and Goudimel fell a victim to his connection with it. He was killed at Lyons in the massacre on St. Bartholomew's day, Aug. 24, 1572, by 'les ennemis de la gloire de Dieu et quelques mechants envieux de l'honneur qu'il avait acquis.'
[ J. R. S. B. ]
GOULDING & DALMAINE, a noted English firm of music publishers. Thomas Dalmaine, late of 20 Soho Square, commenced his career by joining Messrs. Goulding and Phipps, 'Music Sellers to their Royal Highnesses The Prince and Princess of Wales,' at 45 Pall Mall and 76 St. James's Street, about 1800. Mr. Goulding, however, was in that line of business in the year 1794 in James Street, Covent Garden (Musical Directory of that date). They published songs and ballads composed by Mazzinghi, Reeve, Shield, etc. In 1806, 7, 8 we find the firm at 124 New Bond Street. In 1809, on the secession of Phipps, they removed to 20 Soho Square, where they secured the publication of the works of Bishop. The house eventually became the most prominent publishing firm in London for the production of works of English composers, up to about the period when Auber produced his opera 'La Muette' (Feb. 1828), the publication of which induced Mr. Dalmaiue to purchase the exclusive publication for England of Auber's future works, though by the decision of the House of Lords (1854) he was unable to maintain that right. The firm did not concern itself with classical music, and although its catalogue contains no less than 300 pages, we look in vain for the great works of Bach, Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart, or Mendelssohn. Under the management of his nephew Mackinlay, Dalmaine retired on an annuity of £600, after which the house dwindled down to a fourth-rate establishment, and in 1858 removed to 104 Bond. Street, where Dalmaine died at the age of 83.