this enrichment of picture galleries by the demolition of harpsichords was most effected. The number of Ruckers however known to exist has been extended by research to upwards of thirty [App. p.668 "The number of existing Ruckers harpsichords and spinets catalogued by the present writer is (1888) 68"]. Still there was great care in the artistic choice of wood and in the cabinet-work of Tschudi's beautiful instruments. One in the possession of Her Majesty the Queen, and long preserved in Kew Palace, is quite a masterpiece in these respects. It bears Tschudi's name, spelt, as was usual, Shudi; the date 1740 and maker's number 94 are inside. The compass is as in the South Kensington Ruckers, G to F, without the lowest G♯. Two, of 1758 (probably) and 1766, are in the New Palace at Potsdam, and were Frederick the Great's. [App. p.668 "Both the Shudi harpsichords at Potsdam are dated 1766. See Shudi, vol. iii. p. 489b, l. 9–27."] Messrs. Broadwood have one dated 1771, with five and a half octaves, C to F, Venetian Swell and five stops, comprising the two unisons and octave of the Ruckers, with a slide of jacks striking the strings much nearer to the bridge (also a Ruckers contrivance), and producing a more twanging quality of tone, the so-called 'lute'-stop and a 'buff'-stop of small pieces of leather, brought into contact with the strings, damping the tone and thus giving a kind of pizzicato effect. This fine instrument was used by Moscheles in his Historical Concerts in 1837, and by Mr. Pauer in similar performances in 1862, 63, and 67. There is also one in the Musik Verein at Vienna of similar construction, made by 'Burkat Shudi et Johannes Broadwood,' and dated 1775, which belonged to Joseph Haydn. This was the young Shudi; it is very doubtful if another harpsichord exists with Broadwood's name upon it. [App. p.668 "for the number of Shudi and Broadwood harpsichords existing, see Shudi, vol. iii. p. 489b, l. 46–7; and p. 490, list of Shudi and Shudi & Broadwood harpsichords. The latest instrument by these makers now (1888) known to exist is numbered 1137 and dated 1790."]
The variety of stops and combinations introduced by different makers here and abroad at last became legion, and were as worthless as they were numerous. Pascal Taskin, a native of Theux in Liège and a famous Parisian harpsichord maker, is credited with the reintroduction of leather as an alternative to quills; his Clavecin 'en peau de buffle' made in 1768 was pronounced superior to the pianoforte (De la Borde, 'Essai sur la musique', 1773). Taskin's were smaller scale harpsichords than those in vogue in England, and had ebony naturals and ivory sharps, and a Japanese fashion of external ornamentation. There is one at South Kensington, dated 1786. In the Liceo Communale di Musica at Bologna there is a harpsichord with four rows of keys, called an 'Archicembalo.' This instrument, according to Mr. Engel, was made by a Venetian, Vito Trasuntino, after the invention of Nicolo Vicentino, who described it in his work 'L'Antica Musica ridotto alia moderna prattica' (Rome 1555). The compass comprises only four octaves, but in each octave are thirty-one keys. A 'Tetracordo' was made to facilitate the tuning of these minute intervals. Thus early were attempts made to arrive at purity of intonation by multiplying the number of keys within the bounds of the octave. Another of the curiosities of harpsichord making was the 'Transponiclavicymbel' described by Praetorius (1614–18). By shifting the keyboard the player could transpose two tones higher or lower, passing at pleasure through the intermediate half tones. Arnold Schlick, however, had achieved a similar transposition with the organ as early as 1513 (Monatshefte für Musik-Geschichte, Berlin, 1869). A harpsichord pedalier—Clavicymbelpedal—according to Dr. Oscar Paul, an independent instrument with two octaves of pedals, was used by J. S. Bach, notably in his Trios and the famous 'Passacaille'; and in his transcriptions of Vivaldi's Concertos. Lastly a 'Lautenwerke' must be noticed, a gut-string harpsichord, an instrument not worth remembering had not Bach himself directed the making of one by Zacharias Hildebrand of Leipsic. It was shorter than the usual harpsichord, had two unisons of gut strings, and an octave register of brass wire, and was praised as capable, if heard concealed, of deceiving a lute-player by profession (Paul, Gesch. des Claviers, Leipsic 1868). [See Clavichord, Ruckers,Spinet, Virginal.]
[ A. J. H. ]
HARINGTON, Henry, M.D., born in 1727 at Kelston, Somersetshire; in 1745 entered at Queen's College, Oxford, with the view of taking orders. He used to pass his vacations with his uncle, William, vicar of Kingston, Wilts, from whom he imbibed a taste for music and poetry. He resided there during 8 years, and wrote some unimportant pieces of music and poetry. In 1748 he took his B.A. degree, abandoned his intention of taking orders, and commenced the study of medicine. He remained at Oxford until he took his M.A. and M.D. degrees. Whilst there he joined an amateur musical society established by Dr. W. Hayes, to which those only were admitted who were able to play and sing at sight. On leaving Oxford he established himself as a physician at Bath, devoted his leisure to composition, and founded the Harmonic Society of Bath. In 1797 he published a volume of glees, catches, etc., and afterwards joined Edmund Broderip, organist of Wells, and Rev. William Leeves, composer of 'Auld Robin Gray,' in the publication of a similar volume. In 1800 he published 'Eloi! Eloi! or, The Death of Christ,' a sacred dirge for Passion Week. Harington was an alderman of Bath, and served the office of mayor with credit. He died Jan. 15, 1816, and was buried in Bath Abbey. His compositions are 'distinguished for originality, correct harmony and tenderness, and he was remarkably successful in some humorous productions' (Harmonicon). His round 'How great is the pleasure' used to be well known.
[ W. H. H. ]
HARRIS, Joseph John, born in London in 1799, was chorister in the Chapel Royal under John Stafford Smith. In 1823 he was appointed organist of St. Olave's Church, Southwark. In 1827 he published 'A Selection of Psalm and Hymn Tunes, adapted to the psalms and hymns used in the church of St. Olave, Southwark.' In Feb. 1828 he quitted Southwark to become organist of Blackburn, Lancashire; in 1831 was made 'lay precentor,' or choir master at the collegiate church (now the cathedral) at