year he became lay vicar of Westminster Abbey, but resigned bis appointment in 1820. He was the first promoter of the Harmonic Institution [see Argyll Rooms], and after the breaking up of that establishment carried on for some years the business of a music publisher in the Strand. He was for several years director of the music at the English Opera, Lyceum; and it was at his instance that Weber's 'Der Freischütz' was first performed in England, July 24 [App. p.670 "July 23"], 1824, an event which forms an era in the history of the opera in this country. Hawes did not at first venture to perform the entire work, the finale being omitted and ballads for the soprano and tenor interpolated, but he had soon the satisfaction of discovering that the opera would be accepted without curtailment. The great success of the work induced him subsequently to adapt the following operas to the English stage:—Salieri's 'Tarrare,' 1825; Winter's 'Das Unterbrochne Opferfest' ('The Oracle, or, The Interrupted Sacrifice'), 1826; Paer's 'I Fuorusciti' ('The Freebooters'), 1827; Mozart's 'Così fan tutte' ('Tit for Tat'), 1828; Ries' 'Die Raüberbraut' ('The Robber's Bride'), and Marschner's 'Der Vampyr,' 1829. Hawes composed or compiled music for the following pieces: 'Broken Promises' (compiled), 1825; 'The Sister of Charity,' 1829; 'The Irish Girl,' 1830; 'Comfortable Lodgings,' 'The Dilosk Gatherer,' and 'The Climbing Boy,' 1832; 'The Mummy,' 'The Quartette,' and 'The Yeoman's Daughter,' 1833; and 'The Muleteer's Vow' (partly selected), 1835. He was the composer of 'A Collection of five Glees and one Madrigal,' and 'Six Glees for three and four voices'; and the arranger of 'Six Scotch Songs, harmonized as Glees.' His glee, 'The bee, the golden daughter of the spring,' gained the prize given by the Glee Club on its 5Oth anniversary in April 1836. He edited the publication in score of 'The Triumphs of Oriana'; of a collection of madrigals by composers of the 16th and 17th centuries; a collection of the then unpublished glees of Reginald Spofforth; and a collection of Chants, Sanctuses, and Responses to the Commandments. In 1830 he gave oratorio performances in Lent at both the patent theatres, but with heavy loss. He was for many years conductor of the Madrigal Society, and organist of the German Lutheran Church in the Savoy. Hawes died Feb. 18, 1846. His daughter, Maria Billington Hawes, afterwards Mrs. Merest, for some years occupied a high position as a contralto singer, and was the composer of several pleasing ballads.
[ W. H. H. ]
HAWKINS, James, Mus. Bac., was a chorister of St. John's College, Cambridge, and afterwards organist of Ely Cathedral from 1682 until his death in 1729. He was a voluminous composer of church music, and 17 services and 75 anthems by him are preserved (more or less complete) in MS. in the library of Ely Cathedral. Two services and 9 anthems (part of those) are also included in the Tudway collection (Harl. MSS. 7341, 7342). Hawkins transcribed and presented to the library of Ely Cathedral many volumes of cathedral music. He took his degree at Cambridge in 1719. He was a nonjuror, as appears by an autograph copy of one of his anthema in the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society (No. 1719), the words of which are applicable to party purposes, and which has a manuscript dedication 'to the Very Revnd Mr. Tomkinson and the rest of the Great, Good, and Just Nonjurors of St. John's College in Cambridge.'
James Hawkins, his son, was organist of Peterborough Cathedral from 1714 (when he was appointed at a salary of £20 per annum) to 1759 [App. p.670 "1750"]. He composed some church music. One of his anthems is included in the Tudway collection (Harl. MSS. 7342).
[ W. H. H. ]
HAWKINS, Sir John, Knight, born Mar. 30, 1719, originally intended for the profession of his father, an architect and surveyor, but eventually articled to an attorney. He was duly admitted to the practice of his profession, devoting his leisure hours to the cultivation of literature and music. On the formation of the Madrigal Society (1741), Hawkins, at the instance of Immyns, its founder, a brother attorney, became one of the original members. About the same time he became a member of the Academy of Antient Music. Hawkins wrote the words of Six Cantatas, which were set to music for a voice and instruments, by John Stanley, and published at their joint risk in 1742. These succeeded so well that the authors were induced to publish, a few months afterwards, a similar set, which met with equal success. Hawkins was also a frequent contributor to the 'Gentleman's Magazine' and other periodicals. In 1749 he was invited by Samuel Johnson to be one of the nine members who formed his Thursday evening club in Ivy Lane. In 1753 he married Miss Sidney Storer, with whom he received a considerable fortune, which was greatly increased on the death of her brother in 1759. Hawkins then purchased a house at Twickenham, to which he retired. In 1 760 he published an edition of Walton and Cotton's 'Complete Angler,' with a life of Walton and notes by himself, and a life of Cotton by William Oldys. The publication involved him in a dispute with Moses Browne, who had shortly before put forth an edition of the 'Angler.' Hawkins's edition was thrice reproduced by him in his lifetime, and again by his son, John Sidney Hawkins, after his death. He was an active magistrate, and in 1765 became Chairman of the Middlesex Quarter Sessions. In 1770, with a view of assisting the Academy, he wrote and published anonymously a pamphlet entitled, 'An Account of the institution and progress of the Academy of Ancient Music.' In 1772, on Oct. 23, he was knighted. In 1776 he gave to the world the work on which his fame rests—his 'General History of the Science and Practice of Music,' in 5 vols. 4to., on which he had been engaged for 16 years. In the same year Dr. Burney published the first volume of his 'General History of Music'; the other three appearing at intervals between that date and 1789. Contemporary judgment awarded the palm