year he became lay vicar of Westminster Abbey, but resigned bis appointment in 1820. He was the first promoter of the Harmonic Institution [see Argyll Rooms], and after the breaking up of that establishment carried on for some years the business of a music publisher in the Strand. He was for several years director of the music at the English Opera, Lyceum; and it was at his instance that Weber's 'Der Freischütz' was first performed in England, July 24 [App. p.670 "July 23"], 1824, an event which forms an era in the history of the opera in this country. Hawes did not at first venture to perform the entire work, the finale being omitted and ballads for the soprano and tenor interpolated, but he had soon the satisfaction of discovering that the opera would be accepted without curtailment. The great success of the work induced him subsequently to adapt the following operas to the English stage:—Salieri's 'Tarrare,' 1825; Winter's 'Das Unterbrochne Opferfest' ('The Oracle, or, The Interrupted Sacrifice'), 1826; Paer's 'I Fuorusciti' ('The Freebooters'), 1827; Mozart's 'Così fan tutte' ('Tit for Tat'), 1828; Ries' 'Die Raüberbraut' ('The Robber's Bride'), and Marschner's 'Der Vampyr,' 1829. Hawes composed or compiled music for the following pieces: 'Broken Promises' (compiled), 1825; 'The Sister of Charity,' 1829; 'The Irish Girl,' 1830; 'Comfortable Lodgings,' 'The Dilosk Gatherer,' and 'The Climbing Boy,' 1832; 'The Mummy,' 'The Quartette,' and 'The Yeoman's Daughter,' 1833; and 'The Muleteer's Vow' (partly selected), 1835. He was the composer of 'A Collection of five Glees and one Madrigal,' and 'Six Glees for three and four voices'; and the arranger of 'Six Scotch Songs, harmonized as Glees.' His glee, 'The bee, the golden daughter of the spring,' gained the prize given by the Glee Club on its 5Oth anniversary in April 1836. He edited the publication in score of 'The Triumphs of Oriana'; of a collection of madrigals by composers of the 16th and 17th centuries; a collection of the then unpublished glees of Reginald Spofforth; and a collection of Chants, Sanctuses, and Responses to the Commandments. In 1830 he gave oratorio performances in Lent at both the patent theatres, but with heavy loss. He was for many years conductor of the Madrigal Society, and organist of the German Lutheran Church in the Savoy. Hawes died Feb. 18, 1846. His daughter, Maria Billington Hawes, afterwards Mrs. Merest, for some years occupied a high position as a contralto singer, and was the composer of several pleasing ballads.
[ W. H. H. ]
HAWKINS, James, Mus. Bac., was a chorister of St. John's College, Cambridge, and afterwards organist of Ely Cathedral from 1682 until his death in 1729. He was a voluminous composer of church music, and 17 services and 75 anthems by him are preserved (more or less complete) in MS. in the library of Ely Cathedral. Two services and 9 anthems (part of those) are also included in the Tudway collection (Harl. MSS. 7341, 7342). Hawkins transcribed and presented to the library of Ely Cathedral many volumes of cathedral music. He took his degree at Cambridge in 1719. He was a nonjuror, as appears by an autograph copy of one of his anthema in the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society (No. 1719), the words of which are applicable to party purposes, and which has a manuscript dedication 'to the Very Revnd Mr. Tomkinson and the rest of the Great, Good, and Just Nonjurors of St. John's College in Cambridge.'James Hawkins, his son, was organist of Peterborough Cathedral from 1714 (when he was appointed at a salary of £20 per annum) to 1759 [App. p.670 "1750"]. He composed some church music. One of his anthems is included in the Tudway collection (Harl. MSS. 7342).
[ W. H. H. ]