Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/725

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HAYDN.
713
 

of this concert; the audience was a distinguished one, and the net receipts amounted to £400. 'It is only in England that one can make such sums,' he remarked. J. B. Cramer and Mme. Dussek gave concerts soon after, at which Haydn conducted his own symphonies.

During the latter months of his stay in London Haydn was much distinguished by the Court. At a concert at York House the programme consisted entirely of his compositions, he presided at the pianoforte, and Salomon was leader. The King and Queen, the Princesses, the Prince of Wales, and the Dukes of Clarence and Gloucester were present, and the Prince of Wales presented Haydn to the King, who, in spite of his almost exclusive preference for Handel, expressed great interest in the music, and presented the composer to the Queen, who begged him to sing some of his own songs. He was also repeatedly invited to the Queen's concerts at Buckingham House; and both King and Queen expressed a wish that he should remain in England, and spend the summer at Windsor. Haydn replied that he felt bound not to desert Prince Esterhazy, and was not inclined entirely to forsake his own country. As a particular mark of esteem the Queen presented him with a copy of the score of Handel's Passion-music to Brockes's words. He was frequently at Carlton House, where the Prince of Wales (a pupil of Crosdill's on the cello, and fond of taking the bass in catches and glees), had a regular concert-room, and often played his part in the orchestra with the Dukes of Cumberland (viola) and Gloucester (violin). In 1795 he gave many musical parties, and at one which took place soon after his marriage (April 8) the Princess of Wales played the pianoforte and sang with Haydn, who not only conducted but sang some of his own songs. He attended at Carlton House 26 times in all, but like other musicians found much difficulty in getting paid. After waiting long in vain he sent in a bill for 100 guineas from Vienna, which was immediately discharged by Parliament. It must be admitted that the demand was moderate.

Encouraged by the success of the 'Storm,' Haydn undertook to compose a larger work to English words. Lord Abingdon suggested Needham's 'Invocation of Neptune,' an adaptation of some poor verses prefixed to Selden s 'Mare Clausum,' but he made little progress, probably finding his acquaintance with English too limited. The only finished numbers are, a bass solo, 'Nor can I think my suit is vain,' and a chorus, 'Thy great endeavours to increase.' The autograph is in the British Museum. Haydn received parting gifts from Clementi, Tattersall, and many others, one being a talking parrot, which realised 1400 florins after his death. In 1804 he received from Gardiner of Leicester six pairs of cotton stockings, into which were worked favourite themes from his music.—His return was now inevitable, as Prince Esterhazy had written some time before that he wished his chapel reconstituted, with Haydn again an its conductor.

The second visit to London was a brilliant success. He returned from it with increased powers, unlimited fame, and a competence for life. By concerts, lessons, and symphonies, not counting his other compositions, he had again—as before—made £1200, enough to relieve him from all anxiety for the future. He often said afterwards that it was not till he had been in England that he became famous in Germany, by which he meant that though his reputation was high at home, the English were the first to give him public homage and liberal remuneration. His diary contains a list of the works com jxmed in London. To those already mentioned we must add—

4 hymns for Tattersall's 'Parochial Psalmody': songs for Gallini and others: 8 Lieder—one with orchestral accompaniment: arias David, Signora Banti, and Miss Poole, and another with orchestral accompaniment; 'O tuneful voice,' song, composed for a distinguished lady; 'Lines from the Battle of the Nile,' words by Mrs. Knight, a grand air; 'The spirit's song', (Shakespeare's words) [App. p.670 "omit the words (Shakespeare's words)"], the Ten Commandments set to canons: one canon in an album; 6 English songs; 12 Canzonets (1st set: Mermaid's song; La memoria; Pastorale; Despair; Pleasing pain; Fidelity. 2nd set: Sailor's song; The Wanderer; Sympathy; She never told her love; Piercing eyes; Content); 'Dr. Harrington's Compliment,' song with piano accompaniment, in reply to verses and music addressed to Haydn by Dr. Harington: 12 ballads for Lord Abingdon; harmonies and accompaniments to 154 Scotch songs for Napier the publisher: a symphonie-concertante in B♭; a notturno; 2 divertimenti; an overture for Salomon's 'Windsor Castle' (Covent Garden); 4 marches; 34 minuets and allemands: 6 contredanses; 6 quartets (finished in Vienna in 1798, known as op. 73 and 74, dedicated to Count Apponyi, London and Paris editions. Nos 69–74); and 10 pianoforte sonatas for Broderip, Preston, Miss Janson, etc. In the Interval between Haydn's first and second visits to London he composed the Andante in F minor with variations, one of his finest works, dedicated to Mlle. Ployer, 12 Redouten Minuets and 12 Teutsche Tänze for the benefit of the Artists' Widows' Fund. The Salomon symphony in E♭ (No. 10) was written in Vienna in 1798.

Haydn left London August 15, 1795, and travelled by way of Hamburg, Berlin, and Dresden. Soon after his return a pleasant surprise awaited him. He was taken by Count Harrach and a genial party of noblemen and gentleman, first to a small peninsula formed by the Leitha in a park near Rohrau, where he found a monument and bust of himself, and next to his birthplace. Overcome by his feelings, on entering the humble abode, Haydn stooped down and kissed the threshold, and then pointing to the stove, told the company that it was on that very spot that his career as a musician began. On the 18th December he gave a concert in the small Redoutensaal, at which three of his London symphonies were performed, and Beethoven played either his first or second clavier-concerto. At this time he lived in the Neumarkt (now No. 2) which he left in Jan. 1797 for his own house in the suburbs. He now only went to Eisenstadt for the summer and autumn. Down to 1802 he always had a new mass ready for Princess Esterhazy's name-day, in September. (Novello, Nos. 2, 1, 3, 16, 4, 6.)[1] To these years belomg several other compositions—A cantata, 'Die Erwählung eines Kapellmeisters,' composed for a club meeting regularly in the evenings at the tavern 'zum Schwanen,' in the Neumarkt.[2] Incidental music for 'Alfred,' a

  1. No. 2 was composed 1796 'In tempore bellí,' and called the 'Paukenmesse,' because in the Agnus the drums are introduced. No. 3 was composed 1797: known in England as the Imperial Mass, but in Germany as 'Die Nelsonmesse,' because it is said to have been performed during Nelson's visit to Eisenstadt in 1800; he asked Haydn for his pen, and gave him his own gold watch in exchange.
  2. Much frequented in later years by Beethoven (see his letters to Zmeskall). It was the scene of the adventure with the waiter (Ries, p. 121).