Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/88

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76
APPOGGIATURA.
 

5. Mozart, Sonata in A minor.

{ \time 4/4 << \relative e'' { e4 e8. e16 e4 c8( a) \appoggiatura a8 gis4 gis2 gis 4 \bar "||" s4 }
\new Staff { \relative a' { s1 | a8(-> gis) gis2 gis4 | s4 } } >> }


6. Hummel, 'Pianoforte School.'

{ \time 4/4 << \relative g'' << { \appoggiatura g4 \stemUp fis4. e8 \appoggiatura e4 d4. c8 \bar "||" s4 } \\ { r8 <c a> <c a> <b g> r <a fis> <a fis> <fis d> | s4 } >>
\new Staff { \relative g'' << { g4( fis8) e e4( d8) c | s4 } \\ { r8 <c a> <c a> <b g> r <a fis> <a fis> <fis d> | s4 } >> } >> }


7. Bach, 'Passionsmusik.'

{ \time 12/8 \key d \major << \relative g'' { g8. fis32 g a8 ~ a8. g16 fis8 \appoggiatura f8 e4. ~ e8 g e \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \clef treble \key d \major \relative f'' { s4. s fis( e8) g e | } } >> }


8. Beethoven, 'Adelaide.'

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 4/4 \key g \minor << \relative f' { r4 f8. f16 bes4 \times 2/3 { bes8 c d } | \acciaccatura b8 c4 r \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \key g \minor { s1 | b'4( c'') } } >> }


Exceptions to the above rules are met with as follows:—to the first and second rules in Bach and Mozart, who frequently employed an appoggiatura (called by Marpurg 'der kürzeste Vorhalt') which was worth one third or less of the principal note, but which differed from the short appoggiatura in being accented (Ex. 9). An exception to the second rule occurs whenever its strict observance would occasion a fault in the harmonic progression (Ex. 10), or when it would interfere with the rhythmic regularity of the passage (Ex. 11). Exceptions to the third rule are of still more frequent occurrence; many passages containing a tied note preceded by an appoggiatura would entirely lose their significance if the rule were strictly adhered to. Taste and experience alone can decide where similar exceptions are admissible.

In the works of some of the earlier composers an appoggiatura is occasionally, though very rarely, to be met with, which although placed before a note capable of being halved, yet receives three-fourths of its value. This appoggiatura was usually dotted (Ex. 12).

9. Bach, 'Passionsmusik.'

{ \time 12/8 \key b \minor \partial 8 << \relative f' { fis8 | d'8. cis16 b8 \appoggiatura cis8 b8. ais16 b8 b4. ~ b4 \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \clef treble \key b \minor \relative c'' { s8 | s4. cis16 b ~ b ais b8 b4. ~ b4 | } } >> }


Mozart, Fantasia in C minor.

{ \time 4/4 \partial 4. << \relative g' { r32 gis[ b a] cis[ b d cis] e[ d fis e] | \appoggiatura g8 fis4 fis8 fis \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \clef treble \relative g'' { s4. | \times 2/3 { g16 fis ~ fis ~ } fis8 fis fis } } >> }


10. Bach, 'Suites Françaises.'

{ \time 3/4 \key g \major << { << \relative b' {  \appoggiatura b8 \stemUp a4. b8 g8. fis16 \bar "||" s8 } \\ { c'8 e' d' c' b a | s } \\ { fis'2. | s8 } >> }
\new Staff { \key g \major \relative b' { \grace s8 b16 a ~ a8 ~ a b g8. fis16 | s8 } } >> }


11. Schubert, Rondo, Pianoforte and Violin.

{ \time 4/4 \key g \major << \relative b' { b4. b8 c4. c8 | d4. d8 b'4. b8 | \acciaccatura b8 a4. a8 \acciaccatura a8 fis4. fis8 \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \key g \major \relative b'' { s1 | s | b16 a8. ~ a8 a a16 fis8. ~ fis8 fis | } } >> }


{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 2/4 \partial 16 << \relative a' << { a16^"12." | \appoggiatura c4. bes2 | a4 } \\ { s16 | r4 <e cis> | <fis d> } >>
\new Staff { \relative a' << { a16 | c4.( bes8) | a4 } \\ { s16 | r4 <e cis> | <fis d> } >> } >> }

The appoggiatura, whether long or short, is always included in the value of the principal note; if therefore it is applied to a chord it delays only the note to which it belongs, the other notes of the chord being played with it (Ex. 13).

13. Beethoven, Andante in F.

{ \time 3/8 \key f \major << \relative g' { <g d>8 ~ <g d>16. <a fis c>32 \appoggiatura c16 <bes g d>16. <g d>32 \bar "||" s8 }
\new Staff { \key f \major \relative c'' << { s4 \times 2/3 {c32[ bes ~ bes] ~ } bes[ g] | s8 } \\ { s4 <g d>16. d32 } >> } >> }


Mozart, Sonata in F.

{ \time 6/8 \key f \major << \relative c'' << { <c g e>4. \appoggiatura e8 <d b f>4. | <c e,>4 } \\ { g,2. | c4 } >>
\new Staff { \key f \major << \relative c'' { <c g e>4. e4( d8) | c4 } \\ { s4. <b' f'> | <e' c'>4 } \\ { \stemDown g2. | } >> } >> }


The manner of writing the appoggiatura bears no very definite relation to its performance, and its appearance is unfortunately no sure guide as to its length. In music of the 17th century, at