Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/90

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
78
APPOGIATURA.
 

28. Graun, 'Der Tod Jesu.'

{ \time 4/4 \clef bass \key g \major \partial 2 \relative d' { d4 e | d8( b4) d8 c a4 c8 | \grace c8 b4 a } \addlyrics { Es hat li -- ber -- wun -- de der Lö -- we } }


29. Hummel, 'Pianoforte School.'

{ \time 4/4 \relative b'' { \acciaccatura b8 a8( g) \acciaccatura a8 g8( f) \acciaccatura g8 f8( e) \acciaccatura f8 e8( d) | s } }

When applied to the last note but one of a final cadence the appoggiatura should, according to Emanuel Bach, be short. But later composers have usually preferred the long appoggiatura under these circumstances, especially when accompanied by the seventh of the chord (Ex. 30), or by a part moving in sixths with it (Ex. 31). Beethoven has even lengthened it beyond the value of the principal note, but in this case it is always written as an ordinary note (Ex. 32). When however, in Haydn, Mozart, and all later composers, the final note of the cadence is anticipated, the appoggiatura to the preceding note is short (Ex. 33).

30. Mozart, First Mass.

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 4/4 << \partial 2 \relative d'' { << { \stemUp d4. d8 | d4 ~ d16 e c a g4. \appoggiatura b16 a8 | g4 }  \\ { r4 fis | g e d2 } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass \relative d' { <d a fis>4 <d c> ~ <d b> <c c,> <b d,> <c a d,> | <b g> } }
\new Lyrics \lyricsto "1" { Ky -- ri -- e _ e -- _ lei -- _ son. } >> }


31. Haydn, Symphony in E♭.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 3/4 \key ees \major << \relative e'' { <ees g,>2 \appoggiatura <g bes,>8 <f aes,>4 | <ees g,> }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key ees \major << \relative e' { r4 <ees g,> <d bes> | <ees bes> } \\ \relative b, { bes2. | ees4 } >> } >> }


32. Beethoven, Op. 30, No. 3.

{ \time 3/4 \key ees \major << \relative c'' { c8( ees,4.)-\tweak #'X-offset #6 -\tweak #'Y-offset #-0.5 -\turn g8. f16 | ees4 }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key ees \major << \relative g { s4 g8 bes aes b | g4 } \\ \relative g { <ges a,>4 bes, bes | ees } >> } >> }


33. Mozart, Sonata in F.

{ \time 6/8 \key f \major << \relative f' { f4. \acciaccatura a8 <g e>4 f8 | f4. }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key f \major << \relative a { a4. bes | a } \\ \relative c { c2. | f4. } >> } >> }


In vocal recitative, at the close of a phrase, or of a section of a phrase, an appoggiatura is often introduced which has the full value of the principal note, and indeed appears in its stead (Ex. 34); such an appoggiatura is often not indicated, but is left to the discretion (or want of discretion) of the singer (Ex. 35). It is more appropriate at the close of the whole recitative than after its component phrases, and is especially so when the melody descends a third or a fourth (Ex. 36).

34. Weber, 'Der Freischütz.'

{ \time 4/4 \key ees \major \partial 4 << \relative c'' { c4 | \appoggiatura g'8 f4 f r2 | s8 } \addlyrics { Ent -- se -- tzen! }
\new Staff { \key ees \major \relative g'' { s4 | g4 f r2 | s8 } } >> }


35. Haydn, 'The Seasons.'

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/4 \key c \minor \partial 2. << \relative b' { r8 b d4. ees8 | c8. c16 c4 r2 | s8 } \addlyrics { The meek -- eyed morn ap -- pears. }
\new Staff { \key c \minor \relative d'' { s2. | d8. c16 c4 r2 | s8 } } >> }


36. Bach, 'Passionsmusik.'

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 4/4 << \relative d'' { \cadenzaOn \autoBeamOff r8 d g, f \bar "|" d d r4 \bar "|" s8 } \addlyrics { They an -- swered no -- thing. }
\new Staff { \relative e' { \cadenzaOn \autoBeamOff s2 e8 d r4 | s8 } } >> }


Handel, 'Messiah.'

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 4/4 << \relative d'' { \autoBeamOff dis8 dis dis e b b r4 | s8 } \addlyrics { have them in de -- ri -- sion. }
\new Staff { \relative e'' { \autoBeamOff s4. e8 e b r4 | s8 } } >> }

When a trill or other ornament appears in combination with an appoggiatura, the latter is long, and the trill is performed on the principal note or on the appoggiatura, according as it is placed above the one or the other (Ex. 37).

37. Haydn, Sonata in F. Türk.
{ \time 3/4 \key f \major << \relative c'' { c \times 2/3 { a'8 a, d} \appoggiatura c8 bes4\prall | }
\new Staff { \key f \major \relative c'' { s2 c8( bes64 c bes16.) | } } >> }  { \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 2/4 << \relative b' { \appoggiatura c4\turn b2 | }
\new Staff { \relative d'' { d32*2/3( c b c8. b4) } } >> }
[Time signature changed per App. p.523.]


The proper execution of the appoggiatura seems to be most doubtful in the group in which the note bearing the appoggiatura is followed by two or four notes of half its own value. In the majority of such cases the appoggiatura should be long (Ex. 38), and particularly in smoothly flowing passages in moderate or slow tempo (Ex. 39). But there are numerous exceptions, as for example when the employment of the long appoggiatura would alter the rhythm of the passage