Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/91

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APPOGGIATURA.
79
A QUATRE MAINS.

(Ex. 40), or when (according to Türk) only a single example is present (Ex. 41).

38. Beethoven, Op. 10, No. 3.

{ \time 4/4 \key d \major \partial 2 \relative d'' { \appoggiatura d8 cis4 b8 a | gis4( e) \appoggiatura d'8 cis4 b8 a | } }


Mozart, Sonata in D.

{ \time 6/8 \key d \major \partial 4. \relative f'' { fis4 g8 | \appoggiatura b16 a8( g16 fis) e d \acciaccatura g8 b4 cis8 | } }


39. Mozart, Sonata in C, Andante.

{ \time 3/4 \key f \major \relative b'' { b16( c d c) \appoggiatura c16 bes8( a16 g) \acciaccatura g8 f8( e16 d) } }


40. Weber, 'Der Freischütz.'

{ \time 2/4 \key d \major \relative b'' { \acciaccatura cis8 b4 \acciaccatura cis8 b4 | \acciaccatura cis8 b8 a16 g fis8 a16 g | \acciaccatura g8 fis e16 d \acciaccatura fis8 e d16 cis | } }


41. Türk.

{ \time 4/4 \key f \major \relative f' { f2. \acciaccatura g'8 f e16 f | d2 } }


In such cases no definite rule can be given, and the question becomes a matter of taste and feeling.

[ F. T. ]

APPOGGIATURA, DOUBLE. (Ital. Appoggiatura doppia; Ger. Doppelvorschlag; Fr. Port de voix double.) An ornament composed of two short notes preceding a principal note, the one being placed above and the other below it. They are usually written as small semiquavers.

The first of the two may be at any distance from the principal note, but the second is only one degree removed from it. They have no fixed duration, but are generally slower when applied to a long note (Ex. 1) than when the principal note is short (Ex. 2); moreover, the double appoggiatura, in which the first note lies at a distance from the principal note, should always be somewhat slower than that in which both notes are close to it (Ex. 3). In all cases the time required for both notes is subtracted from the value of the principal note.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 2/4 \relative b' << { \appoggiatura { b16[^\markup { 1. \italic Written. } d] } c2 \bar "||" \appoggiatura { b16[^"2." d] } c4 b8 r \bar "||" \grace { e,16[^"3." d'] } c4( b8 r | }
\new Staff { \override TupletBracket #'bracket-visibility = ##f \times 2/3 { b16(^\markup { \italic Played. } d c) ~ } c8 ~ c4 | b32( d c8. b8) r | \stemDown \times 2/3 { e,16( d' c) ~ } c8( b) r | } >> }

The double appoggiatura is sometimes, though rarely, met with in an inverted form (Ex. 4), and Emanuel Bach mentions another exceptional kind, in which the first of the two small notes is dotted, and receives the whole accent, while the principal note becomes as short as the second of the two small notes (Ex. 5).

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/4 \partial 2 \relative b' << { \grace { d16[^"4." b] } c4 r \bar "||" c4^"5." \appoggiatura { c8.[ e16] } d4 c r | }
\new Staff { d32 b c8. r4 | c4 c8.( e32 d) c4 r | } >> }

The dotted double appoggiatura, written as above, is of very rare occurrence; but it is frequently found in the works of Mozart, Beethoven, etc., written in notes of ordinary size (Ex. 6).

6. Beethoven, Sonata, Op. 53.

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 4/4 \clef bass \relative c << { <c e>8 <c e> <c e> <c e> <c e> <c e> <d fis> <d fis> | <d g>4.( b'16 a) g8 r r4 | } \\ { <g, c,>8 <g c,> <g c,> <g c,> <g c,> <g c,> <a c,> <a c,> | <g b,>2:8 <g b,>:8 | } >> }

[ F. T. ]

APRILE, Giuseppe, born at Bisceglia in Apulia, 1738, an eminent soprano singer; was educated at the Conservatorio of 'La Pietà' at Naples, and sang in all the principal theatres of Italy and Germany. Dr. Burney heard him at Naples in 1770 and says that he had a weak and unequal voice, but was perfectly in tune, had an excellent shake, and great taste and expression. He was an excellent teacher of singing, and was one of Cimarosa's masters. He composed songs, but his best work, a system of solfeggi (London and Paris), has passed through many editions and is still valued. It is included in Peters' edition. He was living in Naples in 1792. [App. p.523 "Paloschi calls him a contralto singer, and gives the date of his birth as Oct. 29, 1732, and that of his death as 1814."]

[ M. C. C. ]

A PRIMA VISTA (Ital.), 'At first sight.'

A PUNTA D'ARCO (Ital.), 'With the point of the bow' (in violin music).

A QUATRE MAINS (Fr.; Germ. Zu vier Händen, Vierhändig; Ital. a quattro mani). Music written for two performers upon one pianoforte, and usually so printed that the part for each player occupies the page which is directly opposite to him.

By far the greater proportion of music 'à quatre mains' consists of arrangements of orchestral and vocal compositions and of quartetts, etc. for stringed instruments; indeed, scarcely any composition of importance for any combination of instruments exists which has not been arranged and published in this form, which on account of its comparative facility of performance is calculated to reproduce the characteristic effects of such works more readily and faithfully than arrangements for pianoforte solo.

But besides this, the increase of power and variety obtainable by two performers instead of one offers a legitimate inducement to composers to write original music in this form, and the opportunity has been by no means neglected,