placing before an English audience an opera composed after the Italian manner, with recitative instead of spoken dialogue. For this purpose he selected the 'Artaserse' of Metastasio, which he himself translated into English. Departing to a great extent from his former style he crowded many of the airs with florid divisions, particularly those in the part of Mandane, which he composed for his pupil, Miss Brent. The other singers were Teuducci, Peretti, Beard, Mattocks, and Miss Thomas. The success of the work was decided, and 'Artaxerxes' retained possession of the stage for upwards of three-quarters of a century. The part of Mandane was long considered the touchstone of the powers of a soprano singer. The composer sold the copyright for sixty guineas, an insignificant amount compared with the sums which later composers obtained, but probably as much as the then more limited demand for music justified the publisher in giving. On Feb. 29, 1764, Dr. Arne produced his second oratorio, 'Judith,' at the chapel of the Lock Hospital, in Grosvenor Place, Pimlico, for the benefit of the charity. In 1765 he set Metastasio's opera 'Olimpiade,' in the original language, and had it performed at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket. It was represented however but twice, owing, it has been supposed, to some petty jealousy of an Englishman composing for an Italian theatre. In 1769 Dr. Arne set such portions of the ode, written by Garrick for the Shakspere jubilee at Stratford-on-Avon, as were intended to be sung, and some other incidental music for the same occasion. His last dramatic composition was the music for Mason's 'Caractacus' in 1776. Dr. Arne produced numerous glees, catches, and canons, seven of which obtained prizes at the Catch Club, and instrumental music of various kinds. He died March 5, 1778, and was buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden. Shortly before his dissolution he sang with his dying breath a Hallelujah. Mrs. Arne survived her husband about seventeen years, dying in 1795. It must not be forgotten that Dr. Arne was the first introducer of female voices into oratorio choruses; which he did at Covent Garden Theatre on Feb. 26, 1773, in a performance of his own 'Judith.' Dr. Arne was author as well as composer of 'The Guardian outwitted,' 'The Rose,' 'The Contest of Beauty and Virtue,' and 'Phoebe at Court,' and the reputed author of 'Don Saverio' and 'The Cooper.' A fine portrait of him by Zoffany is in the possession of the Sacred Harmonic Society.
The following is a list of Dr. Arne's com- positions:—Oratorios: Abel, 1755, Judith, 1764. Operas and other musical pieces: Rosamond, 1733. The Opera of Operas, or Tom Thumb the Great, 1733. Dido and Æneas, 1734. The Fall of Phaeton. 1736. Music in Zara, 1736. Cornus, 1738. The Judgement of Paris, 1740. Alfred, 1740. Songs in As You Like It, 1740. Songs in Twelfth Night, 1741. The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green. 1741. Songs in The Merchant of Venice, 1742. Britannia, 1743. Eliza, 1743. Thomas and Sally, 1743. The Temple of Dulness, 1745. King Pepin's Campaign, 1745. Music in The Tempest, 1746. Neptune and Amphitrite, 1740. Don Saverio, 1749. Dirge in Romeo and Juliet, 1750. The Prophetess, 1758. The Sultan, 1759. Artaxerxes, 1762. Love in a Village (chiefly compiled), 1762. The Birth of Hercules (not acted), 1763. The Guardian outwitted, 1764. Olimpiade (Italian opera), 1765. The Ladles' Frolic, 1770. Additions to Purcell's King Arthur, 1770. The Fairy Prince, 1771. The Cooper, 1772. Choruses in Mason's Elfrida, 1772. The Rose, 1773. The Contest of Beauty and Virtue, 1773. Achilles in Petticoats, 1773. May Day, 1775. Phoebe at Court, 1776. Music in Mason's Caractacus, 1776. Besides these Arne composed many incidental songs, etc. for other plays, as The Tender Husband, The Rehearsal, The Rival Queens, etc. Collections of songs under the following titles: Lyric Harmony, The Agreeable Musical Choice, Summer Amusement, The Winter's Amusements, The Syren, Vocal Melody, 1753, The Vocal Grove, 1774, and nearly twenty books of songs sung at Vauxhall, Ranelagh, and Marylebone Gardens. Glees, Cathches and Canons: thirteen glees, ten catches, and six canons, are printed in Warren's collections. Ode on Shakspere, 1769. Sonatas or lessons for the harpsichord. Organ Concertos. Overtures etc. for the orchestra. [App. p.523 adds "'The Trip to Portsmouth,' 'Reffley Spring' (1772), and music to Mason's tragedy of 'Elfrida.'"]
[ W. H. H. ]
[ T. P. H. ]
ARNOLD, Samuel, Mus. Doc. Born in London, Aug. 10, 1740, and educated in the Chapel Royal under Bernard Gates and Dr. Nares. His progress was so great that before he had attained his twenty-third year Beard engaged him as composer to Covent Garden Theatre, where in 1765 he brought out the opera of 'The Maid of the Mill.' Many of the songs were selected from the works of Bach, Galuppi, Jomelli, and other Italian writers. This opera was one of the first, since the time of Purcell, in which concerted music was employed to carry on the business of the stage, and it was used by Arnold with great cleverness. The success of the work decided the composer's future connection