��a place in this work as the pupil and friend of Mozart and the Maecenas of Beethoven.
Headers of Burney's ' Musical Tour ' will remember his eulogies of the Countess Thun- Klosterle, so celebrated for her beauty, intellect and culture, whose disregard for mere form gave her the reputation of eccentricity, but whose house and family had charms that attracted even the Emperor Joseph and his brothers thither 011 the footing of friendly visitors. Of her taste in music it is sufficient to say that she was a pro- found admirer of the compositions of both the young Mozart and the young Beethoven, at a time when such appreciation was by no means universal. Her daughters Georg Forster's ' Three Graces ' were worthy of their mother. Elizabeth married Rasoumowsky ; Christine, born July 26, 1765, married, November 21,1 788, Lich- nowsky ; and the third the English Lord Guilford. Schb'nfeld, a Viennese, writes in 1796, of Lady 'Gilfort' as a guitar player of very high rank and a singer of uncommon excellence ; and of Princess Lichnowsky as ' a strong musician who plays the pianoforte with feeling and expression.'
Lichnowsky, without pretending to rival the great magnates Esterhazy, Lobkowitz, and their peers, in maintaining a complete ' chapel ' of vocal and instrumental music, had within five years after his marriage his regular Friday quartet of youthful virtuosos, Schuppanzigh, Sina, Weiss, and Kraft, all of whom became famous, and also gave musical entertainments on a scale requiring a full orchestra.
His relations to the Prussian court compelled him occasionally to appear there; and he thus found opportunity to give Mozart only two years his senior a practical and substantial proof of his affection, by inviting him, in those days of tedious and expensive travelling, to join him on one of these occasions free of expense. This w as the journey in the spring of 1 789, during which the King of Prussia offered Mozart the then noblest musical position in Germany, but which a kind word from the Emperor, after his return, led him to reject, without securing an equivalent. There seems to be no doubt that Lichnowsky, deeply moved by the distressing condition of his teacher and friend, had taken him to Berlin in the hope of improving his circum- stances, and that the King's offer was partly due to his influence. Two and a half years later poor Mozart was dead, leaving a void in the Lichnowsky-Thun circle which there was no one to fill. Another two years and young Beethoven had come from Bonn.
The relations between him and the Lichnow- skys are sufficiently indicated in the article BEETHOVEN; but a current error must be cor- rected ; namely, that the breach caused by the quarrel at Grata in 1806 was final. Lichnowsky lived in a large house over the Schotten gate both house and gate disappeared long since and in the storey below him dwelt Beethoven's friends, the Erdbdys. The Schotten and Mb'lker bastions were contiguous, and the Pasqualati house, on the latter, was in the same row with
that of Lichnowsky, though a few doors away from it. This then was the reason why Beethoven was content to live in rooms in the fourth storey, looking to the cold north, and without a direct ray of the sun. He remained there from 1804 to 1807, and then removed into rooms provided him by the Countess Erdb'dy.
An outbreak with the Countess led him to remove to the other side of the city, where he passed the years 1809 and 1810. Meantime, so complete a reconciliation had taken place be- tween him and both Lichnowsky and the Countess Erdody, that in 1811 he went again to Gratz, and on his return once more took hia old lodging in the Pasqualati house, where he remained until the death of Lichnowsky. 1 It was during these last years that Schindler re- cords the frequent visits of the prince to the composer.
EDWARD MAHIA, son and successor of Prince Carl (born Sept. 19, 1789, died Jan. i, 1845, at Munich), distinguished himself as an agricul- turist, but more as a man of letters. He stands high in Austrian literature as a national anti- quarian, especially for his great ' History of the House of Habsburg.'
LICHNOWSKY, COUNT MOEITZ, a younger brother of Prince Carl, was one of that small circle of most intimate friends of Beethoven, faithful to the last. He was probably that Count Lich- nowsky who published (1798) 'VII Variations for P. F. on Nel cor piu.' After the death of his first wife he became deeply attached to the opera-singer, Mile. Stummer ; but not until after the death of Prince Carl, when their daughter had already passed the stage of in- fancy, were they able to marry. It is in rela- tion to this attachment that Beethoven is said to have written the Sonata in E minor, op. go. [See vol. i. p. 206 6.] [A. W. T.]
LIEBLICH GEDACT (i. e. gedeckt), literally 'sweet-toned covered or closed' pipe. This class of organ stop is a variety of the old quite- stopped Diapason or Gedact. It was invented by the elder Schulze, of Paulinzelle near Erfurt, and was first brought under notice in England in hw organ in the Great Exhibition of 1851. It is made either of i6-feet tone (Lieblich Bourdon), 8-feet (Lieblich Gedact), or 4-feet (Lieblich Flote). The pipes are made 5 or 6 sizes narrower than the Gedact, but are more copiously winded, and the mouths cut up higher. The tone therefore is nearly or quite as strong as that of the Gedact, though not so full, yet
l Kelchardt, under date NOT. SO, 1BOR, wrltest 'Beethoven lodges with a Hungarian Countess KrdOdy, who occupies the front part of the huge house, but he has broken completely with Prince Lichnow- ky, who lives in the upper part of the house, and with whom he for some years resided. During the ten years 1804-14, then, Beethoven moved from the 1'asqualatl house once only, but then for three years : at the end of that period he departed finally. When therefore hies (writing avowedly from hearsay' states 'he removed from It several times, and Fasqualatl said " The lodging shall not be let, Beethoven, will come again," ' he was evidently misinformed, at least in part ; but his error has been adopted and made the most of In all biographies and biographical sketches of Beethoven since 1838. The new lodging in 18H was In the lower storey of the Bartensteln house, on the same bastion. He retained It but one year ; for. on the departure of the Erdodys from Vienna in 1816. there was no inducement to remain, and Btethoveu moved anay from the Molker Bastel never to return.