Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/175

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LOMBARDI.
163
LONDON VIOLIN-MAKERS.

1863. A great part of the music was afterwards employed by Verdi in the opera of Jerusalem.

[ G. ]

LOMBARDY, School of Music of. [See Milan.]

LONDON. The University of London has [1]recently determined to grant the degrees of Mus. Bac. and Mus. Doc. under the following regulations. Candidates for the Mus. Bac. degree must have passed the Matriculation Examination ten months before. For the degree itself there are two examinations. The first, which is held in December, comprises the following subjects:—the relation between vibrations and the pitch of sounds; the nature of harmonics, and the simpler phenomena of stretched strings and compound sounds; the theory of musical intervals, of the scales, and of consonance and dissonance; the history of music so far as it relates to the growth of musical forms and rules. The second Mus. Bac. examination, held later in the same month, comprises the following subjects:—practical harmony; counterpoint in five parts with canon and fugue; form in musical composition; instrumentation; arranging for the piano from an instrumental score; a critical knowledge of the scores of certain standard works. Before admittance to this examination the candidate must have submitted to the examiners a vocal composition by himself, containing real five-part vocal counterpoint, with accompaniment for a quintet string band. Technical skill in performance is not part of the qualification for this degree: but a mark of merit is offered to candidates for playing at sight from a five-part vocal score, or playing an accompaniment from a figured bass.

For the Mus. Doc. there are also two examinations, both in December. The subjects of the first are the following:—the phenomena of sound and sound-waves, and generally the higher branches of acoustics; temperament; the scales of all nations; Greek and Church Modes; history of measured music; consonance and dissonance; theory of progressions; history and theory of harmony and counterpoint. The subjects of the second Mus. Doc. examination comprise practical harmony of the more advanced character; counterpoint in eight real parts, with canon, fugue, etc.; treatment of voices in composition; instrumentation for full orchestra; general acquaintance with the works and character of the greatest composers, and a critical acquaintance with certain specified works. Before being admitted to this examination the candidate must send in a vocal composition such as would occupy about 40 minutes in performance, containing eight-part vocal harmony and fugal counterpoint, a portion for one or more solo voices, and an overture in the form of the first movement of a classical symphony. The above list of subjects is abbreviated from the much longer official list, to which reference for more exact details is recommended. The fee for each examination is £5—i.e. £10 in all for each degree. [App. p.705 "for additions … see Degrees in Appendix."]

[ C. A. F. ]

LONDON SACRED HARMONIC SOCIETY, THE, was formed on March 6, 1848, after the dismissal of Mr. Surman from the post of conductor to the Sacred Harmonic Society. The Rev. George Roberts was president, Mr. Surman conductor, and the affairs of the society were managed by a committee. Six concerts were given in Exeter Hall during the year 1848, resulting in a loss of £394. The so-called society lingered on for some years, and gave its last concert on Dec. 22, 1856 (Messiah). After this it seems to have ceased to exist.

[ G. ]

LONDON VIOLIN-MAKERS. London has probably been for centuries the seat of a manufacture of stringed instruments. The popularity of the viol during the 16th and 17th centuries produced many makers of the instrument, among whom are found Jay, Smith, Bolles, Ross, Addison, Shaw, Aldred, etc. Its design admitted of little variety, and the specimens which have been preserved have only an archæological interest. Of slight construction, and usually made of thin and dry wood, most of the old viols have perished. The violin type, marked (1) by a back curved like the belly, instead of a flat back; by an increased vibration, produced (2) by sound-holes larger in proportion, and with contrary flexures (f), and (3) by four strings instead of six, with a fixed tuning by fifths, and greater thicknesses of wood, reached England from the continent in the middle of the seventeenth century. Its marked superiority in all respects soon drove the treble viol from the field: and a native school of violin-makers forthwith arose, who imitated the general characteristics of the new foreign model, though preserving to some extent the character of the viol. The new pattern, at first adopted for the smaller instruments, gradually extended itself to the larger ones. But viol-shaped tenors continued to be made long after this form had been abandoned for the 'treble' viol, and the violin had taken its place: bass-viols were made still later; and the viol double-bass, with its flat back and tuning by fourths, is even yet in use.

1. Early English School (1650–1700). An independent school of violin -makers naturally arose in London by the application of the traditions of viol-making to the construction of instruments of the violin type. Connoisseurs have traced certain resemblances between these early fiddles and contemporary instruments made on the continent. But the total result of an examination of these works entitles them to rank as a distinct school. Jacob Rayman, who dates from Blackman Street and the Bell Yard, Southwark (1641–1648), Christopher Wise (1656), Edward Pemberton (1660), and Thomas Urquhart (1660), are famous names among these early makers. Their instruments, though of rude ungeometrical pattern, are usually covered with a fine varnish, and have a tone of good quality. Edward Pamphilon (1680–1690), who lived on London Bridge, became more famous. His instruments still preserve a high reputation: and their resemblance to the Brescian school has given

  1. The regulations were determined on in Dec. 1877. and first acted upon in Dec. 1878.