��were succeeded by two books of saecular Madri- .gals of exquisite beauty, and a charming set of Canzonette, for three and four Voices, issued in 1603. Francesco Anerio, and the brothers, Gio- vanni Maria, and Bernardino Nanini, contributed a large store of volumes of equal merit. Rug- gero Giovanelli turned his genius to good account : and the Roman School, now in its highest state of perfection, boasted many other Madrigalists of superlative excellence. Foremost among these fitood Luca Marenzio, who devoted his best ener- gies to the advancement of saecular Art; pro- ducing nine books of Madrigals for five Voices, between the years 1580 and 1589, six, for six Voices, within a very few years afterwards, and many later ones, all of which were so well ap- preciated, that, even during his lifetime, he was honoured with the well-earned title of II piii dolce Cigno d 'Italia. The style of this ' Sweetest Swan' was, by nature, a little less grave than that of Palestrina : but, like that great Master, he possessed the happy faculty of accommodating it to all possible circumstances, and did so with such unvarying success, that he may be justly regarded as the most satisfactory representative of the Third Roman Period. His little Madri- gal, Vezzosi augelli, scored, by P. Martini, in the second volume of his Saggio di Contrappunto, is a miracle of prettiness, and contrasts strangely enough with the deep sadness displayed in the opening bars of his AM ! dispietata morte I
���A hi! dispietala morte!
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�� ��But it was not in Rome alone that the Madri- gal was cultivated with success. It found an equally congenial home in Venice, where it was first introduced by Adrian Willaert, who, though
by birth and education a Fleming, did so much for the City of his adoption that he is universally represented as the Founder of the great Venetian School. His influence, and that of his country- man, and faithful disciple, Cipriano di Rore, may be traced throughout its entire course, from be- ginning to end. Even in the works of Giovanni Croce it is clearly perceptible, notwithstanding the marked individuality which places the stamp of independent genius on everything he wrote. Andrea Gabrieli, and his nephew, Giovanni, Fra Costanzo Porta, and Orazio Vecchi, were all deeply imbued with the same spirit ; Hans Leo Hasler carried it to Nuremberg, where it wrought a good and lasting work ; and Gastoldi be- lieved, by Morley, to have been the inventor of the ' Fa la ' was, really, no more than the ex- ponent of an idea which had already been freely used by Willaert, and more than one of his immediate followers. It may, in truth, be said, that Flemish Art failed to attain its full matu- rity, until it was transplanted from the Nether- lands to Venice. All honour to the great Re- public for developing its rich resources. It was a glorious trust committed to her ; and she ful- filled it nobly.
In Florence, the Madrigal attained a high degree of popularity at first, in the form of the Frottola, which, Cerone tells us, is to be distin- guished from the true Madrigal by the poverty of its contrapuntal artifices afterwards, in the more fully developed productions of Franceso Corteccia, Matteo Rampollini, Pietro'Masacconi, and Baccio Moschini. But its course, here, was brought to an untimely close, by a growing passion for instrumental accompaniment which entirely destroyed the old Florentine love for pure vocal music. In Naples, it flourished bril- liantly ; though rather in the shape of the Villan- ella the Neapolitan equivalent of Gastoldi's Fa la than in a more serious guise. In France, it was but slightly prized, notwithstanding the number of Chansons adapted, by the early Netherlander, to well - known specimens of French popular poetry : and, in Germany, it failed to supplant the national taste for the Volkslied, with which it had very little in com- mon, and which, before the middle of the i6th century, was itself pressed into the service of the all-absorbing Chorale. But, in England, it took root as firmly as ever it had done, either in Rome, or in Venice, and gave rise to a national School which is well able to hold it own against any rival. The old Canon, 'Sumer is i cumen in,' has been cited as a proof that Polyphonic Music originated in England. This position can- not be maintained. The beginnings of Counter- point have, hitherto, eluded all enquiry. But, we have already shewn that the Madrigal was in- vented in the Netherlands ; and, that the first published fruits of its discovery were issued, at Venice, in 1501. The first Polyphonic Songs that appeared in England were printed, by Wyn- kyn de VVorde, in 1530, in a volume of the existence of which neither Burney nor Hawkins seem to have been aware, though it contains a