���In the selection of these examples, we have confined ourselves exclusively to True Cadences, for the sake of illustrating our subject with the greater clearness : but, the Old Masters con- stantly employed Cadences of other kinds, in this part of the Mode, for the purpose of avoid- ing the monotony consequent upon the too fre- quent repetition of similar forms. It is only by careful study of the best works of the best period, that the invigorating effect of this expedient can be fully appreciated. [See MEDIANT; MODES, THE ECCLESIASTICAL; MODULATIONS; CLAUSULA VERA, Appendix.]
II. This term is also applied, by Dr. Callcott, and some other writers on Modern Music, to clones in which the Leading Chord is represented by an Inverted instead of a Fundamental Har- mony.
���Though Cadences of this kind are in constant use, we rardy meet with them, now, under their old name. Most writers of the present day prefer to describe them as Inverted Cadences, specifying particular instances, when necessary, as the First or Second Inversion of the Perfect, Imperfect, or Plagal Cadence, as the case may be : the opposite term, ' Radical Cadence,' being reserved for closes in which the Root appears in the L'ass of both Chords. [W. S. R.]
MEDIANT (from the Lat. Medt'ns, middle). I. One of the three most significant Regular Mod- ulations of the Ecclesiastical Modes, ranking next in importance to the Dominant, or Reciting-Note. [See MODES, THE ECCLESIASTICAL ; MODULA- TIONS, REGULAR AND CONCEDED.]
The normal position of the Mediant, in the Authentic Modes, lies as nearly as possible mid- way between the Final and the Dominant. It makes its nearest approach to the fulfilment of this condition, in Modes I, V, IX, and XIII, in which the Dominant is represented by the Fifth of the Scale, and the Mediant, by the Third. In Mode III, the substitution of C for B, in the ease of the Dominant, leads to an irregularity: the Mediant is still the Third of the Scale ; but, it lies a Third above the Final, and a Fourth
below the Reciting-Note. A similar incongruity would arise in the proscribed Mode XI, were it in practical use : for, theoretically, its Final is B, its Dominant G, and its Mediant D. In Mode VII, C is taken for the Mediant, instead of B, in order to avoid forbidden relations with F : the position, therefore, in this case, is, a Fourth above the Final, and a Second below the Do- minant.
In the Plagal Modes, the position of the Mediant is governed rather by the necessity for securing a convenient note for the Modulation, than by any fixed law. In Modes II, IV, and X, it is the note immediately below the Domi- nant : and the same arrangement would take place in the discarded Mode XII, were it in use. In Modes VI, and XIV, it is a Third below the Final. In Mode VIII, it is a Second below the Final ; the Second above the Final being some- timesthough not very frequently substituted for it, in order to avoid forbidden relations with B.
The following Table exhibits, at one view, the Mediants of all the Modes in general use, both Authentic, and Plagal :
Mode I. F. Mode V, A. Mode IX, C.
Mode II, E. Mode VI, I). Mode X, B.
Modem, G. Mode VII, C. Mode XIII, E.
Mode IV, G. Mode VIII, F. Mode XIV, A.
The functions of the Mediant are important, and well defined.
In the Authentic Modes it is constantly used as an Absolute Initial : and, in cases of emer- gency, it may be so used in the Plagal Modes, also ; especially in the VHIth, in which it fre- quently occupies that prominent position. By virtue of this privilege, it may appear as the first note of a Plain Chaunt Melody of any kind. In common with the other Regular Modulations, it may begin, or end, any of the intermediate phrases of a Plain Chaunt Melody ; and may even begin the last phrase. But, it can never terminate the last phrase. This rule admits of no exception ; and is not even broken in those Endings of the Gregorian Tones for the Psalms which close upon the Mediant : for, in these cases, the real close must be sought for in the Antiphon, which immediately follows the Psalm ; and this invariably ends upon the Final of the Mode. L y e ANTIPHON; TONES, THE GREGO- RIAN.]
II. In Modern Music, the term, Mediant, is always applied to the Third of the Scale, by reason of its intermediate position, between the Tonic and the Dominant.
The office of this note is extremely important, inasmuch as it determines whether the Tonality of the Scale is Major or Minor. [W.S.R.]
MEDIATION (Lat. Mcdintio). That divi- sion of a Gregorian Tone which lies between the Intonation, and the Ending, forming, as it were, the main body of the Chaunt.
The Mediation begins, like the Ending, with a Rcciting-Note the Dominant of the Mode whence it passes on to a short melodious phrase, the character of which diii'ers, considerably, in