Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/256

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Mode XIII. Giovanni Croce.
<< \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 3/2 \new Staff << \new Voice { \stemUp r2 r1 | r \bar "||" } \new Voice { \relative b { \stemDown b2 c d | e1 } } >>
\new Staff { \clef bass << \new Voice { \stemUp g2 a a | b1 } \new Voice { \stemDown g2 f f | e1 } >> } >>
Mode XIV. Palestrina
<< \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/2 \new Staff << \new Voice { \partial 2 \relative c'' { \stemUp c2 | bes a1 g2 | a1 \bar "||" } } \new Voice { \relative g' { \stemDown g2 | f1 d | e } } >>
\new Staff { \clef bass << \new Voice { \relative e' { \stemUp e2 | d f1 e4 d | \once \set suggestAccidentals = ##t cis1 } } \new Voice { \stemDown c'2 | d'1 bes | a } >> } >>

In the selection of these examples, we have confined ourselves exclusively to True Cadences, for the sake of illustrating our subject with the greater clearness: but, the Old Masters constantly employed Cadences of other kinds, in this part of the Mode, for the purpose of avoiding the monotony consequent upon the too frequent repetition of similar forms. It is only by careful study of the best works of the best period, that the invigorating effect of this expedient can be fully appreciated. [See Mediant; Modes, the Ecclesiastical; Modulations; Clausula Vera, Appendix.]

II. This term is also applied, by Dr. Callcott, and some other writers on Modern Music, to closes in which the Leading Chord is represented by an Inverted instead of a Fundamental Harmony.

<< \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/2 \new Staff { \relative d'' { <d g,f>1 <c g e> | <b g f> <c g e> \bar "||" <c g c,> <b g d> | <c g e> <b g d> \bar "||" <a f> <g e> <a f> <g e> \bar "||" } }
\new Staff << \clef bass \new Voice { b,1 c | d c | e g | g g | <c' a,> <c c'> | <c c'> <c c'> }
\figures { <6 3>\breve <4 3> | <6> <6 4>1 <5 3> | <6>\breve <6 4>1 <5 3> } >> >>

Though Cadences of this kind are in constant use, we rarely meet with them, now, under their old name. Most writers of the present day prefer to describe them as Inverted Cadences, specifying particular instances, when necessary, as the First or Second Inversion of the Perfect, Imperfect, or Plagal Cadence, as the case may be: the opposite term, 'Radical Cadence,' being reserved for closes in which the Root appears in the Bass of both Chords.

[ W. S. R. ]

MEDIANT (from the Lat. Medius, middle). I. One of the three most significant Regular Modulations of the Ecclesiastical Modes, ranking next in importance to the Dominant, or Reciting-Note. [See Modes, the Ecclesiastical; Modulations, Regular and Conceded.]

The normal position of the Mediant, in the Authentic Modes, lies as nearly as possible midway between the Final and the Dominant. It makes its nearest approach to the fulfilment of this condition, in Modes I, V, IX, and XIII, in which the Dominant is represented by the Fifth of the Scale, and the Mediant, by the Third. In Mode III, the substitution of C for B, in the case of the Dominant, leads to an irregularity: the Mediant is still the Third of the Scale; but, it lies a Third above the Final, and a Fourth below the Reciting-Note. A similar incongruity would arise in the proscribed Mode XI, were it in practical use: for, theoretically, its Final is B, its Dominant G, and its Mediant D. In Mode VII, C is taken for the Mediant, instead of B, in order to avoid forbidden relations with F: the position, therefore, in this case, is, a Fourth above the Final, and a Second below the Dominant.

In the Plagal Modes, the position of the Mediant is governed rather by the necessity for securing a convenient note for the Modulation, than by any fixed law. In Modes II, IV, and X, it is the note immediately below the Dominant: and the same arrangement would take place in the discarded Mode XII, were it in use. In Modes VI, and XIV, it is a Third below the Final. In Mode VIII, it is a Second below the Final; the Second above the Final being sometimes—though not very frequently—substituted for it, in order to avoid forbidden relations with B.

The following Table exhibits, at one view, the Mediants of all the Modes in general use, both Authentic, and Plagal:—

Mode I. F.  Mode V. A.  Mode IX. C.
Mode II. E. Mode VI. D. Mode X. B.
Mode III. G. Mode VII. C. Mode XIII. E.
Mode IV. G. Mode VIII. F. Mode XIV. A.

The functions of the Mediant are important, and well defined.

In the Authentic Modes it is constantly used as an Absolute Initial: and, in cases of emergency, it may be so used in the Plagal Modes, also; especially in the VIIIth, in which it frequently occupies that prominent position. By virtue of this privilege, it may appear as the first note of a Plain Chaunt Melody of any kind. In common with the other Regular Modulations, it may begin, or end, any of the intermediate phrases of a Plain Chaunt Melody; and may even begin the last phrase. But, it can never terminate the last phrase. This rule admits of no exception; and is not even broken in those Endings of the Gregorian Tones for the Psalms which close upon the Mediant: for, in these cases, the real close must be sought for in the Antiphon, which immediately follows the Psalm; and this invariably ends upon the Final of the Mode. [See Antiphon; Tones, the Gregorian.]

II. In Modern Music, the term, Mediant, is always applied to the Third of the Scale, by reason of its intermediate position, between the Tonic and the Dominant.

The office of this note is extremely important, inasmuch as it determines whether the Tonality of the Scale is Major or Minor.

[ W. S. R. ]

MEDIATION (Lat. Mediatio). That division of a Gregorian Tone which lies between the Intonation, and the Ending, forming, as it were, the main body of the Chaunt.

The Mediation begins, like the Ending, with a Reciting-Note—the Dominant of the Mode—whence it passes on to a short melodious phrase, the character of which differs, considerably, in