Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/447

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engraved on a solid wood-block. It is however the only bit of music in the book. There is a mistake in the double-octave, M which has one note more than I E the proper interval. In the - first edition of this work, printed by Caxton 1482, a space was left for the mu- sical characters to be filled in by hand. Both editions are ' |

in the British Museum. In Merbecke's 'Boke of Com- mon Praier noted' (Grafton, London, 1550) the four lines of the stave are continuous and not made up of small pieces, and are printed in red ink ; the square notes are black and appear to be each a separate type. Only four sorts of notes are used, and are thus explained in a memorandum by the printer. ' The first note is a strene 1 note and is /TS

a breve; the second is EH a square note and is a semybreve ; the third is a pycke and is a myn- ymme ; the fourth is a close, and is only used at the end of a verse, etc.'

A book in the British Museum (Music Cata- logue, 0316; ' Book ' ), proves that florid music was printed in England in 1530. It is the bass part of a collection of 20 songs, and is attributed to Wynkyn de Worde, the successor of Caxton. The typography is identical with that of Petrucci, already mentioned as being produced by means of two impressions. John Day of Aldersgate, in 1560, published the Church Service in four and three parts in an improved style of typography, and in 1562 the whole Book of Psalms. And Thomas Vau- trollier in 1575 published the Cantiones of Tallis and Byrd under a patent from Queen Eliza- beth, the first of the kind granting a monopoly or sole right of printing music. To them suc- ceeded Thomas Este who changed his name to Snodham John Windet, William Barley, and others who were the assignees of Byrd and Morley, under the patents respectively granted to them for the sole printing of music. In 1641 Edward Griffin of Paul's Alley, London, printed a collection of church music in score and parts selected by John Barnard, a minor canon of St. Paul's. The notes were of lozenge shape, and the stave lines not very well joined together, the whole

being inelegant though very legible,

after this fashion. But the expense "^~"?~~f : of two printings was saved.

These men followed the practice of the foreign printers, and no improvement was made until the time of John Playford in the reign of Charles II. Until his time, the quavers and semiquavers, however numerous in succession, were all dis- tinct; but in 1660 he introduced the 'new tied note,' forming them into groups of four or six. The Dutch, French, and Germans followed his example; but Marcello's Psalms, published at Venice in a splendid edition in 1724, were

i Strene, t. e. strained or stretched out, perhaps from Its being the longest Dote used in chanting.



��printed after the old manner. From the time of Charles II. round notes began to supersede the lozenge form both in writing and printing, and John Playford's 'Whole Book of Psalms' (about 1675) was printed in the new character.

As regards France, Fournier ('Traite 1 historique et critique sur 1'origine et les progres des carac- teres de fonte pour 1'impression de la musique,' Berne, 1765) says that Pierre Hautin of Paris made the first punches for printing music about the year 1525. The notes and the stave were represented on the punch, consequently the whole was printed at once. These types he used himself, as well as selling them to Pierre Attaignant and other printers. Hautin printed as late as 1576. GuiUaume le Be" in 1544-5 engraved music types for printing first the lines and then the notes ; but this inconvenient system was abandoned. Nicholas Duchemin printed music at one printing in the years 1550 to 1556. Robert Granjon printed music at Lyons about 1572. The works of Claude Le Jeune were printed in France by Pierre Ballard in 1603 and 1606 ; the beauty and elegance of the cha- racters employed showing that the French had greatly the advantage of their neighbours. About this time also madrigals were printed at Antwerp by Phalesio, and sold at his shop, the sign of King David.

The above-named eminent house of Ballard in Paris was established in the middle of the i6th century by Robert Ballard and his son-in- law Adrien Le Roy, and continued from father to son for two centuries, enjoying a royal privi- lege or patent until the tune of the Revolution of 1 789. [See vol. i. p. 1296; and vqj. ii. p. 1230.]

Type music was greatly improved in the i8th century. The 'Musical Miscellany,' printed by John Watts, London 1729, has the stave lines fairly joined, although the notes are not elegant in form. Fournier (Paris 1766) published a ' Manuel typographique,' the musical specimens in which are very good and clear. But still finer are the types cut by J. M. Fleischman of Nuremberg in 1760. The stave and notes are equal to any plate-music for clearness and beauty. These types now belong to J. Enschede & Son of Haarlem. For FOUGT'S patent (i 767) see Appendix.

In 1 755 Breitkopf of Leipzig effected improve- ments in the old system of types, which his son (in conjunction with his partner Hartel) carried still further. [See vol. i. 272, 273.] Gustav Schelter of Leipzig entirely reformed the system, while Carl Tauchnitz of Leipzig was the first to apply stereotype to music-notes.

Mr. Clowes, the eminent London printer, did much to improve music types. The 'Harmoni- con' (1823-33), the 'Musical Library' (1834), and the 'Sacred Minstrelsy' (1835), are excel- lent specimens of the art, the stave lines being more perfectly united than before.

The late Professor Edward Cowper invented a beautiful but expensive process of printing music from the raised surface of copper or brass Ff2

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