to all civilised countries ; whereas, the empirical methods which have been proposed as substi- tutes for it are, like the Tablature for the Lute, fitted, at their best, only to answer some special purpose, often of very slight importance. The ' Tonic Sol-fa ' system, for instance, even set- ting aside the grave faults which it shares with the older Alphabetical Method long since con- demned could never be used for any other purpose than that of very commonplace Part Singing, while the time spent in acquiring it could scarcely fail, if devoted to the study of ordinary Notation, to lead to far higher results. (See TONIC SOL-FA; KEY, II, vol. ii. p. 55 a; BOURGEOIS, Louis, Appendix.] We may, there- fore, safely predict, for the present Written Language of Music, a future co-ordinate with that of the Scientific Principles of which it has so long been the recognised exponent. [W. S. R.]
NOTE, NOTES (Lat. note). The marks or signs by which music is put on paper. [See NOTATION.] Hence the word is used for the pounds represented by the notes. [See SCALE.] Also for the keys of a pianoforte ; and for a tune or song, as the ' note' of a bird. [G.]
NOTTEBOHM, MARTIN GUSTAV, composer, teacher, and writer on music, born Nov. 12, 1817, at Liidenscheid near Arnsberg in Westphalia, son of a manufacturer. In 1838 and 39, when in Berlin as a volunteer in the Garde-Schiitzen- bataillon, he took lessons on the piano and com- position from L. Berger and Dehn. In 1840 he removed to Leipzig, where he became intimate with Mendelssohn and Schumann, particularly the latter. A testimonal from Mendelssohn, stating his qualifications as a musician, procured his discharge from the army, and in Sept. 1846 he settled finally in Vienna. In 1847 he went through a course of counterpoint with Sechter, and has since been esteemed as an able and conscientious teacher of the pianoforte and com- position. But it is as a solid and scientific writer on music that his name will live ; indeed his critical researches on Beethoven's works con- stitute him an authority of the first rank. His cooperation in the revised editions of the works of Bach, Handel, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Mozart, is of the highest value as a guarantee for the thoroughness with which undertakings so important should be conducted. If not the first to explore Beethoven's sketch-books, he has cer- tainly investigated them more thoroughly and to more purpose than any one else, and his works on this subject deserve the gratitude of every student of the great composer. [See vol. i. p. 1 74.] It is to be regretted that so far no public institu- tution has been inclined to offer a man of his great attainments a position commensurate with his services.
Up to the present date (April 1880) Notte- bohm has published : ' Musikwissenschaftliche Beitrage ' in the ' Monatschrift fur Theater und Musik'(i855 and 57, Vienna, Klemm) ; 'Em Skizzenbuch von Beethoven,' description with extracts (1865, Breitkopf & Hartel) ; 'Thema- tisches Verzeichniss der im Druck erschienenen
��Werke von Beethoven,' 2nd ed. enlarged, and with chronological and critical observations (1868, B. & H.) ; ' Beethoveniana ' (1872, Rieter-Bie- dermann) ; ' Beethoven's Studien,' vol. i. con- taining the instruction received by Beethoven from Haydn, Albrechtsberger, and Salieri ; from the original MSS. (1873, ibid.) ; ' Thematisches Verzeichniss der im Druck erschieuenen Werke von Franz Schubert' (1874, Vienna, Schreiber) ; ' Neue Beethoveniana,' papers appearing from time to time in the 'Musikalisches Wochenblatt' ; 1875 to 79 this last, and the 'Beethoveniana,' are founded on the examination of Beethoven's sketch-books to which allusion has been made ; 'Mozartiana' (1880, B. & H.) His compositions include op. i, Clavier-quartet; op. 4, Clavier-trios (both Peters) ; Solos for P.F. op. 2 and 3 (Peters) ; op. 6, 10, ir, 13-15 (Spina) ; op. 16 (Peters) ; op. 17' Variationen iiber ein Thema von J. S. Bach' P.F. 4 hands (B. & H.). [C.F.P.]
NOURRIT, Louis, tenor-singer, born Aug. 4, 1780, at Montpellier, and educated in the Maitrise there ; through the influence of Me'hul entered the Conservatoire at Paris, became the favourite pupil of Garat, and won prizes. He made his first appearance at the Ope"ra as Renaud in Gluck's ' Armide. ' A good singer, ' but unambitious and cold, he contented himself with taking Laine"'s parts in the old operas, and seldom created new r61es. He retired in 1826, and lived at his country house at Brunoy till his death, which took place on Sept. 23, 1831. During the whole of his operatic career he carried on the business of a diamond merchant, and wished to make a tradesman of his eldest son.
ADOLPHE, born in Paris, March 3, 1802. This gifted youth received a good classical education at the College Ste. Barbe,- but was then put into an office, the drudgery of which he beguiled by studying music in secret. On the representation of Garcia, however, he was allowed to follow his wishes. His first appearance at the Opera took place Sept. 10, 1821, as Pylade in Gluck's 'Iphi- ge"nie en Tauride,' when he was favourably received, partly because, in voice, manner, and appearance, he was strikingly like his father. This resemblance suggested to Me'hul an opera- fe"erie, 'Les deux Salem' (July 12, 1824), which however failed. Adolphe was intelligent and well-educated, and determined to succeed. Flexibility of voice he acquired by singing in Rossini's operas, and he studied hard to excel as an actor both in comedy and tragedy. On his father's retirement he succeeded him as leading tenor, and for more than ten years created the first tenor r6le in all the operas produced at the Acade"mie. The fol- lowing is a list of the parts written for him :
1826, Ne"ocles in ' Le Siege de Corinthe.'
1827, Ame'nophis in Moifee'; and Douglas in ' Macbeth.' 1828, Masaniello in ' La Muette de Portici' ; and 'Le Comte Ory.' 1829, Arnold in 'Guillaume Tell.' 1830, Leonard da Vinci in Ginestet's ' Fra^ois I a Chambord ' ; and Un Inconnu in 'Le Dieu et la Bayadere.' 1831, Adhemar in 'Euryanthe'; Guillaume in '.Le