��1670), '-which is called a Curtain Tune, probably from the curtain being first drawn up during the performance of this species of overture, he has, for the first time that has come to my knowledge, introduced the use of crescendo (louder by degrees) with diminuendo and lentando, under the words soft and slow by degrees.' From the fact of these directions being in Italian, we may gather that they had been previously used by Italian coin- posers, but the date cannot be put much earlier than 1670 for their first appearance. From this time until about 1740, when they were quite settled and in constant use, these marks of ex- pression were used, at first very sparingly, and gradually more and more frequently. A com- parison has been made (vol. i. p. 205) between Beethoven's marks and those of Mozart with respect to number, to which may be added the following calculation, showing that their fre- quency depends in a great measure on the de- velopment of the pianoforte. In the Adagio of Beethoven's sonata, op. 106, there are 150 marks to 188 bars, and in Chopin's Largo in the sonata in B minor, op. 58, there are 141 marks to 120 bars. The place of accents was taken, on keyed instruments, by the manieren, or grace-notes, which served to emphasize the notes before which they were placed. Possi- bly it is from this cause that the confusion, so common in some musical criticisms, has arisen of using the word nuances to indicate the grace-notes or fioriture of singers. These marks occur occasionally in the works of Bach, as for instance in the Italian Concerto, and they are used by Rameau and Couperin, who give them in French, retaining their own language in spite of the general use of Italian for musical purposes. This custom remains still in French music, in which such terms as ' pressez le temps,' ' animez un peu,' etc., are of frequent occur- rence ; and of late, German composers have taken to excluding Italian expressions altogether, sub- stituting ' zunehmend' and ' abnehmend' for cres- cendo and diminuendo, etc. This is the latest development of the practice originated by Bee- thoven in one or two of his later works, and continued by Schumann, who confined himself, almost entirely, to the German language.
With regard to the nuances which are left to the performer, no rule can be laid down as to their use, nor can their insertion be a matter of teaching. Almost all modern music requires the use of certain modifications of time and expres- sion, which it is impossible to convey altogether by words or signs. These should never be at- tempted by any but a more or less finished musician. The difficulty of steering between the error, on the one hand, of going through the composition in a dry and desultory manner, without attempting any ' interpretation,' as it is called, of the composer's thoughts, and, on the other hand, of exaggerating or setting at defiance the marks which are put for the guidance of the performer, and bringing out the performer's own individuality at the sacrifice of that of the composer, is very great, and can only be
entirely overcome by those artists who have the rare gift of losing their own individuality alto- gether, and merging it in the composer's idea. Two of the best instances of the utmost limit of this kind of nuances, are Heir Joachim's render- ing of the Hungarian Dances by Brahms, and (in a very different grade of art) the playing of Strauss's Waltzes by his own band in Vienna. In both these examples there is an utter absence of exaggeration, and yet the greatest possible freedom of expression. This kind of liberty of interpretation is only allowable, it will be under- stood, in the works of the later modern masters ; for example, in those of Bach it would be quite inadmissible, and should be only used very spar- ingly in those of the masters from Beethoven to Schumann, while in Schumann and Chopin a great deal more licence is given. It is almost entirely by means of these unwritten nuances that the comparative merits of the greatest performers can be judged. ' [J.A.F.M.]
NUITS BLANCHES (Restless Nights). The French and English names respectively of the series of 1 8 ' Morceaux Lyriques,' for pianoforte solo, by Stephen Heller (op. 82), also called ' Blumen-Frucht-und Dornenstucke,' after Jean Paul's work with the same title. They differ in character from one another, some being through- out restless, excited, and impassioned, and others entirely calm and peaceful. [J.A.F.M.]
NUMBER. The several pieces or sections of operas, oratorios, or other long works, are num- bered for convenience of reference, etc. This is sometimes very arbitrarily done even by so methodical a person as Mendelssohn. (Compare e.g. in Elijah, Nos. 40 and 41.) The overture is never counted, but ' No. i ' is the first piece after it. See also OPUS-NUMBER. [G.]
NUNC DIMITTIS. The first words of the Song of Simeon, occurring in the 29th, 3oth, 3ist and 32nd verses of the 2nd chapter of the Gospel of St. Luke. This canticle has been used at either Vespers or Compline from the earliest ages. It is mentioned in the Apostolical Consti- tutions (written about the beginning of the .^th century) and though St. Benedict does not order its use in his Rule (A.D. 530), Amalarius, writing early in the pth century mentions it as in use in his own time, and English versions of it are ex- tant as far back as the I4th century. It appears that in the most ancient times this hymn wa sung at Vespers, of which service it still for part in the Greek Use. The Roman and Ar- menian Uses, however, appoint it to be sung at Compline, the solemn character of the hyi seeming more appropriate to the last service of the day. (It is worthy of note that the Armenian differs from the Western Use in having two dis- tinct Offices of Compline, one for public, and the other for private use. The former contains neither Magnificat nor Nunc Dimittis, but the latter eludes both canticles, thus resembling the Eve ing Office of the Anglican Church).
The Anglican Evensong was formed by com- bining the two ancient services of Vespers and