Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/506

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494

��OFFENBACH.

��he played the cello in public (e.g. with Dohler, at the Musical Union) and private. In 1866, when his Belle He*lene was running at the Adelphi, he made no public appearance. [G.C.]

OFFEETORIUM (Fr. Ofertoire). A portion of a Psalm, or Verse from some other part of Holy Scripture, sung by the Choir, at High Mass, immediately after the Credo, during the time occupied by the Priest in making ready the Oblations, and offering them upon the Altar.

A proper Offertorium is appointed for every Festival and Feria in the year, except Good Friday and the Saturday in Holy Week ; and the Plain Chaunt Melodies adapted to the entire series are contained in the Gradual. As these Melodies are rarely long enough to fill up the interval which must necessarily elapse before the priest is ready to begin the Sursum Corda, they are usually supplemented, either by a Motet as in the Pontifical Chapel or by a grand Voluntary on the Organ. Palestrina provided for this contingency by setting the special forms for all the Sundays and most of the principal Festivals in the year in the Motet style, for five Voices, and publishing them in the year 1593 in two books, entitled 'Offertoria totius 'anni.' But when the appointed words have already been sung in Plain Chaunt, it is not at all de rigueur that they should be repeated in the Motet which follows, provided this be an appropriate one for the Festival. It is, indeed, in this part of the Mass that the Motet, properly so called, finds its strongest raison d'etre ; and a rich store of com- positions, well adapted to the end in view, has been bequeathed to us by the Great Masters of the 1 5th and i6th centuries. [See MOTET.]

Among the so-called Motets of the modern school, a few are specially entitled Offertories ; but these differ in no respect from the ordinary ' Motet ' with Instrumental Accompaniment. Many very popular Offertoires, in the form of Organ Voluntaries, will be found among the works of modern French Composers. Among the best are those of Lefebure Wely, Batiste, and Mons. Wider, the talented organist of S. Sulpice.

The Sentences appointed to be used at the Offertory, in the Book of Common Prayer, were printed by John Marbeck in his 'Booke of Common-Praier, noted' in 1550, with Plain Chaunt Melodies, evidently adapted from antient sources ; but the best English Composers of the Polyphonic School do not seem to have thought it desirable to harmonise them. [W. S. R.]

OGINSKI. A noble and distinguished Polish family, (i) Prince MICHAEL CASIMIB, who died at Warsaw in 1803, resided at Slonim in Lithu- ania, where he maintained an establishment of orchestra and singers. He is said to have in- vented the addition of pedals to the harp, and to have proposed the Creation to Haydn as the subject of an oratorio. He formed a canal be- tween two rivers at his own expense a national work, which connected the Baltic with the Black

i They form the 5th vol. of Alfleri'a edition and the 9th of Breitkopf I. Burney has printed one of them' E ialt abo te Domine,' the Offertory for the llth Sunday after 1'eiitecost in vol. Hi. p. 191.

��OKEGHEM.

Sea. (a) His nephew, MICHAEL CLEOPAS, born Sept. 25, 1765, at Gutzow, near Warsaw, was grand treasurer of Lithuania and Senator of the Russian Empire. Of his diplomatic and literary achievements we need not speak. In the matter of music he was a pupil of Kozlowski's, and was known for his Polonaises. Of these 14 are published, one of which became very widely celebrated owing to its merit and to a romantic story attached to its origin. It is printed in the Musical Library, with the story referred to. Twelve others are printed in the Harmonicon of 1824. He also wrote songs to French words. Dur- ing his residence in Paris in 1823 Prince Oginski was well known in the best musical circles. He died at Florence, Oct. 31, 1833, and is buried in Santa Maria Novella. (3) Prince GABRIEL, born in 1788, though a musician and violin-player, left no compositions. He was driven from home by the revolutions of 1831, but was forced to re- return by nostalgia, and died in Lithuania in 1843. [G.]

OKEGHEM, JOANNES, born early in the 1 5th century, probably at Termonde in East Flanders, where a family of that name then re- sided. The form OCKENHEIM. was introduced by Glarean, and has been very generally copied, but Okeghem (with such slight variations as Okenghem, Okekem, etc.) appears on his com- positions and in all important documents re- lating to him. As he belonged to the college of singers in Antwerp cathedral in 1443, we may place his birth as early as 1415 or 1420. There is some reason for supposing Binchois to have been his master, but in any case there was no lack of excellent musicians at the time when he was a boy. He gave up his place at Antwerp in 1444, and soon afterwards entered the service of the king of France. In 1461, the year of Charles VII's death, he is mentioned as head of the chapel. With Louis XI he appears to have been in great favour, and was by hirn appointed treasurer of the church of St. Martin's at Tours, where he resided the greater part of his life. He is said to have served three kings of France for forty years, and resigned his position at Tours soon after the year 1490. He then lived in re- tirement for many years and died about the year 1513 nearly 100 years old.

No wonder if by this time he was somewhat out of fashion, and that the invention of music- printing at the beginning of the i6th century was more to the advantage of his distinguished pupils than to his own. In the earliest of Pe- trucci's publications five French chansons are given ; but no mass or motet bearing Okeghem's name was printed till many years after his death, and even then the mass which Petreius published, ' Missa cujusvis toni,' seems to have been chosen on account of its special scientific interest, and no others were printed entire. Ex- tracts from the ' Missa Prolationum ' were given in various theoretical treatises, but both these masses exhibit Okeghem as a great teacher, rather than a great church composer. The Brussels library possesses two MS. masses, ' Pour

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