Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/608

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596

��ORGAN.

��1712. St. Magnus, London Bridge. JOKDAN. The first Swell.

In 1712 the Jordans (Abraham, sen. and jun.) built an organ for the church at the opposite end of London Bridge to St. Saviour's, namely St. Magnus, which deserves special notice as being the first instrument that contained a Swell. This organ also had four sets of keys, the fourth no . doubt being a counterpart of the third (Echo) but ' adapted to the act of emitting sounds by swelling the notes,' so that passages played with expression could be contrasted with those played without. A list of the stops in the Swell has not been preserved ; but we know from those subsequently made, that its compass and capacity must have been very limited, though sufficient to illustrate the importance of the improvement.

1716. St. Chad's, Shrewsbury.

THOMAS SCHWARBROOK. Swell and Choir on one Manual.

Four years after the invention of the Swell, in 1716, Thomas Schwarbrook adopted a device in his organ at St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, which after- wards became a veiy favourite one with the builders of the last century, namely, that of at- taching to the choir manual a few treble stops enclosed in a swell-box. This, in a small way, foreshadowed the combination 'swell to choir' which remains a frequent and favourite one to this day. The Echo organ contained a ' Flageolet,' the earliest example that we have met with.

GREAT ORGAN. 13 stops.

1. Open Diapason. , 8. Lesser Tierce (19).

2. Stopped Diapason. j 9. Cornet, treble.

3. Principal. 10. Sesquialtera. bass.

4. Octave to middle C. 11. Fourniture.

5. Twelfth. 12. Trumpet.

6. Fifteenth. 13. Clarion.

7. Tierce (17).

CHOIR OBGAX. 6 stops. 1*. Open Diapason, to middle C. 17. Flute, to miJaie 0.

15. Stopped Diapason. 18. Fifteenth.

16. Principal. 19. Trumpet, to middle 0.

Nos. 14 and 19 were enclosed as a Swell, and the box was opened by a pedal.

ECHO. 7 stops.

20. Open Diapason. 24. Twelfth.

21. Stopped Diapason. 25. Fifteenth.

22. Principal. 26. Trumpet.

23. Flageolet.

Compass, Gt. and Chr. GO, short 8ves, to D In alt, 52 notes.

Echo, middle G to D In alt, 27 notes.

Drum pedal, sounding G and F J-

Schwarbrook's masterpiece was at St. Michael's, Coventry. It origin ally contained a Harp, Lute, and Dulcimer ; but the strings and action were BO liable to get out of order that they were re- moved in 1 763.

1722-4. St. Dionis Eackchurck.

RENATUS HARRIS, Jun.

Many Reed Stops.

This admirable organ, made by one of the fourth generation of Harrises, who died young, was remarkable for the number and excellence of its reed-stops, as well as for the general good- ness of its Flue-work. [See FLUEWOBK.] This

��Pipes

�Pipe*

�1. Open Diapason ..:'<

�9. Cornet to mid. C, 5 ranks 135

�2. Stopped Diapason . K

�10. Trumpet ... 66

�3. Principal . . B6

�11. French Horn to tenor D 37

�4. Twelfth . . . 66

�12. Clarion . . 5G

�5. Fifteenth . . 56

�13. Cremona, from Choir

�6. Tierce . . . 56

�Organ, by communi-

�7. Larigot . . 56

�cation ... 00-

�8. Sesquialtera, 4 ranks . 224

�90 '

�CHOIR OBQAH. 7 stops.

�11. Open Diapason to mid-

�17. Flute . . .55

�dle C, by communi-

�18. Fifteenth . . 56

�cation below . . 27

�19. Cremona . . 56

�15. Stopped Diapason to ga-

�20. Bassoon . .56

�mut G, by communi-

�21. Vox Humana . 56

�cation below . . 44

�22. Clarion, from Great Or-

�16. Principal ... 56

�gan, by communication 00

�44S

�SWELL ORGAN. 1 stops.

�23. Open Diapason . . S3

�27. Clarion . ... 32

�24. Stopped Diapason . 32

�23. Cremona ... 32 *

�25. Cornet, 4 ranks . . 123

�29. Vox Humana . . 32

�26. Trumpet ... 32

�3

��ORGAN.

organ had several stops ' by communication,* either wholly or partially, and from different notes. The introduction of the GGj was an unusual feature. It appears to have been the earliest organ to contain a ' French Horn ' stop. ' Tenor D ' was a peculiar note for it to be ter- minated upon ; but it nevertheless remained the standard note for special stops for many years. The Swell had no separate Principal. Where this was the case, the Principal was included in the Cornet.

GREAT ORGAN. 13 stops.

��Total 16&

Compass, Gt. and Chr. GG with GGf to D in alt, 5C notes. Swell, Fiddle G to D In alt, 32 notes.

��1726. St. Mary Redclif, Bristol. First Octave Coupler.

In 1726 John Harris and John Byfield, sen. erected a fine and imposing-looking organ for the church of St. Mary Kedcliff, Bristol, which had a 'i6ft. speaking front.' The compass of this instrument was in some respects unusually com- plete, the Great Organ descending to CCC, in- cluding CCCjf, and the Choir Organ going down to GG with GGJ ; the Swell consisted of the unusual number of nine stops. Four of the Stops in the Great Organ descended to GG only ; and one of the open Diapasons had stopped-pipes to the last four notes. There was ' a spring of com- munication' attached to the Great Organ, by which CO was made to act on the CCC key, and so on throughout the compass. The Redcliff organ therefore contained the first 'octave coupler' that was ever made in England ; in fact, the first coupler of any kind with which any organ in this country was provided. Some old printed accounts of this organ state that the Swell originally went to tenor C, with the lower notes of the reeds very fine ; and that it was afterwards shortened to the fiddle G compass ; but Mr.Vowles, organ-builder of Bristol, who a few years ago reconstructed the organ, and had all its original mechanism under his eye, assures the present writer that the state- ment was erroneous, and probably took its rise from the circumstance that the key-maker, doubt- less by mistake, made the Swell Manual down to tenor C, and that the seven extra keys wera therefore allowed to remain as ' dummies.'

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