Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/631

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
OVERTURE.
619
 

a strong and pervading tinge of serious formalism during nearly a century of its earliest application to secular purposes, even to those of dramatic expression. The following quotations, first from Lulli's overture to 'Thésée' (1675), and next from that to 'Phaeton' (1683), will serve to indicate the style and form of the dramatic prelude as fixed by him. They are scored for stringed instruments. The overture to 'Thesée' begins as follows:—

<< \new Staff { \override Score.TimeSignature #'style = #'single-digit \time 2/2 << \new Voice \relative c'' { \stemUp <c g e>4. <g' e g,>8 e4. d16 c | f4. f8 f4. g8 | e4. e8 d4. c16 b | c4. c8 c4. b8 | s_"etc." }
\new Voice \relative g' { \stemDown s2 g4 e | <g d'> q q8 d' c b | c4. g16 a <e b'>4 e | a e8 f g2 } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass \relative c { c2 c' ~ c4. c8 b4 a8 g | c2 gis | a4. a8 <c e,>2 | s8 } } >>


This introduction is carried on for 16 bars further, with a repeat, and is followed by a movement 'Plus vite' (in all 33 bars), commencing as follows:—

<< \new Staff { \time 2/2 << \new Voice \relative d'' { \stemUp r8 d e f g d g f e2 ^~ e8 e f e | d2 ^~ d4 r8 d | g e f g a4. a8 | s_"etc." }
\new Voice \relative g' { \stemDown s1 | r8 g a b c4. c8 | c2 b4. a16 b | c2 _~ c8 a b c } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass \relative d' { R1*2 \clef treble r8 d e f g d g f | e c d e f f g a | s } } >>


The overture to 'Phaeton' starts thus:—

<< \new Staff { \override Score.TimeSignature #'style = #'single-digit \time 2/2 << \new Voice \relative g'' { \stemUp g4. g8 e4 c | g'2 ~ g4. g8 | <a f>4. q8 \stemDown <g e>4.\trill <f d>8 \stemUp <e c>4. q8 q4 <f d> | <g e>4. <f d>8 <e c>4 <g e> | <c, a>4. q8 }
\new Voice \relative g' { \stemDown g2 g4. a8 | b4 <g b> e4. e8 | c2 e | <e c>4. q8 q4 <d b> | g2 g4 g | f4. f8 s_"etc." }
\new Voice \relative c'' { \stemDown s1 s2 c4 e } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass << \new Voice \relative e' { \stemUp e2 e4 e | d d c4. c8 | a4. a8 b2 | s1 c2. c4 c4. a8 s }
\new Voice \relative c' { \stemDown \mergeDifferentlyDottedOn <c c,>2 c4 c | b g c c, | f2 g | a4. a8 g4 f | e2. e4 | f4. f8 } >> } >>


8 bars more follow in similar style, ending on the dominant—with a repeat—and then comes the quick movement, in free fugal style, commencing thus:—

<< \new Staff { \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 2/2 \partial 2 << \new Voice \relative g'' { \stemUp r8 g g[ g16 f] | e8 e e f16 e <d b>4. q8 | e[ c] g8.[ g16] <g g,>4 <b g>8. q16 | e8. d16 c8. b16 a4 ~ a16 c d e | s4_"etc." }
\new Voice \relative c'' { \stemDown s2 | r8 c c d16 c r8 g g g16 f | e8[ e16 d] c[ d e f] d8[ d d d] | g8[ <g e>16 f] g[ f g e] c8[ a16 b] c[ b c a] }
\new Voice \relative c'' { \stemDown s2 s1 c8[ c] e[ c] s2 | s f,4 f8 f } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass << \new Voice \relative g { \stemUp s2 | r2 r8 g g g | c c c c b8[ b16 a] g[ a b g] | c4 c8 c a[ f16 g] a8[ a] | s4 }
\new Voice \relative g { \stemDown s2 | R1 r2 r8 g g g | <e g>[ c16 d] q[ d q c] f8[ f f f] } >> } >>


There are 22 more bars of similar character, followed by a few marked 'lentement,' and a repeat.

In illustration of Lulli's influence in this respect on Purcell, the following extracts from the overture to Purcell's latest opera, 'Bonduca' (1695), may be adduced. It opens with a slow movement of 14 bars, beginning as follows:—

<< \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \new Staff { \time 2/2 << \new Voice \relative g'' { \stemUp g2 r4 r16 a g f | e4 c g'2 ~ g4 r16 <f d> <e c> <d b> <c a>4. q8 | <d b>4 <e c> f4. g8 | e4. e8 e4 fis | g4. g8 s_"etc." }
\new Voice \relative c'' { \stemDown c2 r | c4 r16 e d c b4 g | c s f, c | g'4. g8 <a c>4 <f b> | <g c> <g e> <g d> <a c,> | bes bes } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass << \new Voice \relative e' { \stemUp e4 r16 g f e d4 g, | g e' e d | e e s2 s1 s d2 s8 }
\new Voice \relative c { \stemDown c4 r16 e d c b4 g | c r16 c b a g4 r16 a g f | e4 c \stemNeutral f2 ~ f4 e d2 | c4 c' bes a | \stemDown g g' } >> } >>


The Allegro commences thus:

<< \new Staff { \time 3/8 << \new Voice \relative c'' { \stemUp s4. s s c8 e c | g'4. ~ g ~ g ~ g | f4 r8 | e4 r8 | d d e }
\new Voice \relative g'' { \stemDown r8 g g | e e g | d d g | r c, c | b b c | a a c | g b g | c4 b8 | b a b | <c c,> <g e> <g c,> | <g d>4 <g c>8 | s_"etc." } >> }
\new Staff { \relative g' { \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical R4.*6|  r8 g g | e e g | d d g | \clef bass r c, c | b b c | s } } >>


This is carried on for 67 bars further, and merges into a closing Andante of 9 bars:—

<< \new Staff { \time 2/2 \key c \minor << \new Voice \relative c'' { \stemUp c4. c8 c4 bes | aes des c f | d! c b g' | g f e aes | s8_"etc." }
\new Voice \relative e' { \stemDown <e c>4 <e aes> <f aes> <g c,> | <f c> bes <a f> c | bes a g <b ees> | <c ees> <d g,> <c g> <f f,> } >> }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key c \minor << \new Voice \relative b { \stemUp s1 s4 bes s a | d2. }
\new Voice { \stemDown c4 c d e | f1 | fis2 g4 g | a b c'2( | s8) } >> } >>