in C, op. 4 (Breitkopf & Härtel); grand duos for 2 cellos, op. 5 and 6 (Vienna, Steiner); and divertissement for cello with double bass (Peters). Kraft also played the baritone in Prince Esterhazy's chamber music, and composed several trios for 2 baritones and cello. His son and pupil Nicolaus, born Dec. 14, 1778, at Esterhaz, early became proficient on the cello, accompanied his father on his concert-tours (see above), and settled with him in Vienna in 1790. He played a concerto of his father's at a concert of the Tonkünstler-Societat in 1792, and was one of Prince Karl Lichnowsky's famous quartet party, who executed so many of Beethoven's works for the first time. The others were Schuppanzigh, Sina, and Franz Weiss, all young men. In 1796 he became chamber-musician to Prince Lobkowitz, who sent him in 1801 to Berlin, for further study with Louis Duport. There he gave concerts, as well as at Leipzig, Dresden, Prague, and Vienna on his return journey. In 1809 he entered the orchestra of the court-opera, and the King of Wirtemberg hearing him in 1814, at once engaged him for his chapel at Stuttgart. He undertook several more concert-tours (Hummel accompanied him in 1818), but an accident to his hand obliged him to give up playing. He retired on a pension in 1834, and died on May 18, 1853. Among his pupils were Count Wilhorsky, Merk, Birnbach, Wranitzky's sons, and his own son Friedrich, born in Vienna Feb. 12, 1807, entered the chapel at Stuttgart 1824. Among Nicolaus's excellent cello compositions may be specified—a fantasia with quartet, op. 1 (André); concertos, op. 3, 4 (Breitkopfs), and 5 (Peters); scene pastorale with orchestra, dedicated to the King of Wirtemberg, op. 9 (Peters); 8 divertissements progressives with 2nd cello, op. 14 (André); 3 easy duos for 2 cellos, op. 15, and 3 grand duos for ditto, op. 17 (André).
[ C. F. P. ]
KRAKOVIAK, Cracoviak, or Cracovienne. A Polish dance, belonging to the district of Cracow. 'There are usually,' says an eye-witness, 'a great many couples—as many as in an English country dance. They shout while dancing, and occasionally the smart man of the party sings an impromptu couplet suited for the occasion—on birthdays, weddings, etc. The men also strike their heels together while dancing, which produces a metallic sound, as the heels are covered with iron.' The songs, which also share the name, are innumerable and, as is natural, deeply tinged with melancholy. Under the name of Cracovienne the dance was brought into the theatre about the year 1840, and was made famous by Fanny Elssler's performance. The following is the tune to which she danced it; but whether that is a real Krakoviak, or a mere imitation, the writer is unable to say:—
It has been varied by Chopin (op. 14), Herz, Wallace, and others.
[ G. ]
[ G. ]
- For an anecdote on this point see 'Josef Haydn,' by C. F. Pohl vol. i. p. 282.
- See Thayer's 'Beethoven,' vol. ii. p. 278.