uses with such marked emphasis in the 3rd bar of the Allegro in the overture to Don Giovanni is properly a minor ninth, as some maintain since happily the roots would be the same in both cases. [C.H.H.P.J
RORE, CIPRIANO DI, composer of the Venetian school, born at Mechlin in 1516. He studied under Willaert, 1 chapel-master of St. Mark's, Venice, and was probably in early life a singer in that cathedral. In 1542 he brought out his first book of madrigals (a 4), a work long held in favour, 3 and for the next 7 or 8 years published continually. 3 About 1550* he appears to have left Venice for the court of Hercules II. Duke of Ferrara, and for some years we hear nothing of him. 5 In 1559 he returned to Venice to assist Willaert in his duties at St. Mark's, and on the death of that master, was appointed his successor, Oct. 1 8, 1563. He resigned this position almost immediately, and went to the court of Parma, where in a few months he died, at the age of 49. He was buried in the cathedral of that city, and the following epitaph gives an authentic sketch of his life.
Cypriano Eoro, Flandro
Viro omnium peritissimo,
Cujus nomen fama.que
Nee vetustate obrui
Nee oblivione deleri poterit,
Hercules Ferrariens. Ducis II.
Postremo Octavi Fames! Parmae et Placentise
Duels II Chori Praefecto. Ludovicus frater, fil. et hseredes
Moestissimi posuerunt. Obiit anno MDLXV. aetatis xux.
The position to which Rore attained at St. Mark's, and the rank as a musician which con- temporary writers assigned him, point to his having been something besides a madrigal com- poser. Yet of his church compositions either in print or in MS. few have survived. 6 We only
i See title-page ' Fantesie e Recercharl etc. composti da lo Eccell. A. Vuigliart Cipriano uo I>iscej>olo etc. Venetiis 1549* (Brit. Mus. A. 287).
. 2 The F<5tls library at Brnssels contains imperfect copies of three editions 1552, 69 and 82. The edition in the British Museum is 1575.
3 The following list of books of motets and madrigals is taken from Feels' Biographic, Eitner's Bibliographic, and the catalogues of the British Museum and Fe'tls libraries. Some contain work by other composers, but in all cases they bear Cipriano's name, and he is the chief contributor. The date given If that of the supposed 1st edition.
Molett. Bk. I, a 5, Venice 1544 (Brit. Mus.) ; Bk. II. a 4 and 5, Venice 1547 (F5tis Biogr.) ; Bk. Ill, a 6, Venice 1559 (Eitner).
Madrigals. Bk. I. a 4. Venice 1542 (Fe"tis Blogr.) ; Bk. II. a B, Venice 1544 (Brit. Mus. The words on title-page. ' novamente postl in luce.' point to this being the 1st edition, though Foils gives the date 1543. Eitner knows of no edition earlier than 1551); Bk. Ill, a 5. Venice l.-VM (Fetis Bibl. The 1562 edition In Brit. Mus.) ; Bks. IV and V (Venice 1568, according to Eitner and Fetis, but title-pages prove these not to be 1st editions. The fifth book contains an ode to the Duke of Parma, and from the events of the composer's life, we may as-ume this volume to be one of his latest publications).
Chromatic madrigals. Bk. I. a 5, 1544 (Brit. Mus. The word 'ris- tampato' on title-page shows that even this is not 1st edition, though Fetis knows of none earlier than 1560. He quotes 6 books of these madrigals, Venice 1560-68). The first book was reprinted as late as 1592 (Fetis library). Burney has Inserted one number in his History.
In this year a reprint of his 1st book of madrigals was brought out at Ferrara.
s Except the publication of 2 Passions (Paris 1557) with the following curious titles : Tassio D. N. J. Christ! in qua solus Johannes canens
introducitur cum quatuor vocibus ' and ' Passio Inqualntro-
ducuntur Jesus et Judael canentes, cum duabus et sex vocibus.'
Ketis mentions a book of Cipriano's masses, a 4, 5. 6 (Venice 1566) on the authority of Draudius' ' Bibliotheca Classica.' This is probably ' Liber Missarum' 4 4. ,1. 6 (Venice 1566) to which Cipriano only con- tributes tha 1st mass ' Doulce memoyre.'
��know that they were held in high esteem in the court chapel at Munich, and were constantly performed there under Lassus' direction. 7 Duke Albert of Bavaria caused a superb copy of Rore's motets to be made for his library, where it remains to this day, with a portrait of the com- poser on the last page, by the court painter Mielich. [J.R.S.-B.]
ROSA (ROSE), CARL AUGUST NICOLAS, was born at Hamburg, March 22, 1843, was educated as a violin player and made such progress as to be sent to the Leipzig Conservatorium, which he entered in 1859. ^ n J ^66 he came to England and appeared as a solo player at the Crystal Palace on March 10. After a short stay in London he joined Mr. Bateman in a concert- tour in the United States, and there met Madame Parepa, whom he married at New York, in Feb. 1867. His wife's success on the stage led to the formation of a company under the management and conductorship of Mr. Rose, which during its early campaigns could boast such names as Parepa, Wachtel, Santley, Ronconi and Formes among its artists.
Early in 1871 Mr. Rose who by this time had changed his name to Rosa to avoid mistakes in pronunciation returned to England with hia wife, and then made a lengthened visit to Egypt for health. After this they again returned to London, but only for the lamented death of Madame Parepa-Rosa, which took place Jan. 21, 1874. Mr. Rosa however was resolved, not- withstanding this serious blow, to test the fortunes of English opera in London, and on Sept. II, 1875, he opened the Princess's Theatre with a company including Miss Rose Hersee as prima donna, Mr. Santley, and other good singers. He closed on Oct. 30, having produced Figaro, Faust, * The Porter of Havre (Cagnoni), Fra Diavolo, Bohemian Girl, Trovatore, *The Water Carrier (Cherubini), and Siege of Rochelle.
The season of 1876 was undertaken at the Lyceum (Sept. n-Dec. 2). It included The Water Carrier; The Lily of Killarney (with additions) ; Sonnambula ; Faust ; * Giralda (Adam) ; Bohemian Girl ; * Flying Dutchman ; Zampa; Trovatore; Montana; *Joconde (Ni- co!6) ; Fidelio j Fra Diavolo; * Pauline (Co wen) ; Porter of Havre. The next season was at the Adelphi Theatre (Feb. n-April 6, 1878). It included *The Golden Cross, by Briill; The Merry Wives ; The Flying Dutchman ; The Lily of Killarney, and others of those already named. For the fourth season Mr. Rosa took Her Majesty's Theatre (Jan. 27-March 22, 1879), brought out * Rienzi, * Piccolino (by Guiraud) and * Carmen, and played The Golden Cross, Huguenots, Lily of Killarney, etc., etc. His fifth season was at the same theatre (Jan. 10- March 6, 1880) ; * Mignon (Thomas), * Lohengrin and *Aida were all produced for the first time in English; and The Taming of the Shrew
i Piscorsi dell! triomphl etc. nelle nozze dell* illustr. duca Gugl. etc. da Massimo Trojano (Monaco, Berg, 1508).
Denotes that the works bad not been before produced in England, at least in English.