��grave died about 1750. He published 'Volun- taries and Fugues for the Organ or Harpsichord ' ; Italian Cantatas,' 2 books of 6 each ; and 1 2 solos for the German flute ; also a collection of 42 Suits of Lessons for the harpsichord composed by Sign. Domenico Scarlatti,' with an introduction by him- self. He was an enthusiastic admirer of Pales- trina, and hung his bedroom with pieces of paper containing extracts from his works. [W.H.H.] ROSELLEN, HENRI, son of a PF. maker, born in Paris, Oct. 13, 181 1 ; took 2nd PF. prize at the Conservatoire 1827, and 1st harmony do. 1828. Was a pupil and imitator of Herz. He published nearly 200 works for PF. including a ' Me*thode de Piano' (Heugel), a collection of progressive exercises entitled * Manuel des Pianistes ' (ibid.), and many separate pieces of drawing-room cha- racter, one of which, a Reverie (op. 31, no. i), enjoyed an extraordinary popularity for many years over the whole of Europe. He died March 20, 1876. [G.]
ROSENHAIN, JACOB, eldest son of a banker, was born at Mannheim, December 2, 1813. His teachers were Jacob Schmitt, Kalliwoda, and Schnyder von Wartensee. His first appearance as a pianoforte -player was at Stuttgart in 1825, after that at Frankfort, where his success induced him to take up his residence. A one-act piece of his, ' Der Besuch im Irrenhause,* was produced at Frankfort, December 29, 1834, with great success ; his second, ' Liswenna,' 3 acts, was not so fortunate. In 1837 he came to London, played at the Philharmonic, April I7th, and was much heard in the concerts of the day. After this he took up his abode in Paris, where he became very prominent, giving chamber con- certs in combination with Alard, Ernst, and other eminent players, and carrying on a school of piano- forte-playing in conjunction with J. B. Cramer. His early opera, ' Liswenna,' was provided with a new libretto (by Bayard and Arago), and brought out at the Grand Opera as ' Le De'mon de la Nuit,' March 1 7, 1 85 1 . It had however but a moderate success, and was withdrawn after four represen- tations, though afterwards occasionally played in Germany. Another one- act piece, * Volage et Jaloux,' produced at Baden-Baden, August 3, 1863, completes the list of his works for the stage. In instrumental music he was much more prolific. He has composed 3 symphonies in G minor (op. 42), played at the Gewandhaus, Leip- zig, under Mendelssohn's direction, January 31, 1846; in F minor (op. 43), played at Brussels, and at the Philharmonic, London, April 24, 1854 ; ' Im Friihling,' in F minor (op. 61), rehearsed at Conservatoire, but not played. 4 trios for PF. and strings ; I PF. concerto ; 3 string quartets ; 2 cello sonatas ; 1 2 characteristic studies (op. 17) and 24 Etudes melodiques (op. 20), both for PF. solo. Also various pieces for ditto, entitled,
- Poe'mes,' ' Reveries,' etc. ; a biblical cantata,
and various songs, etc. M. Fe'tis credits him with a broad and pure style of playing, and with knowledge and ambition in composition. Schumann has criticised several of his pieces with kindness and liberality. [G.]
ROSES, JOSE, priest and musician, born at Barcelona Feb. 9, 1791, learned music from Sampere, chapelmaster at Barcelona ; was first organist of the monastery of San Pablo and then succeeded his master at Santa Maria del Pino, a post which he held for thirty years. During this time he composed a large quantity of music masses, requiems, motets, graduals, etc., which are preserved in MS. in the church. Among his pupils may be mentioned Calvo, Puig, Rius, Casanovas, etc. He died at his native city Jan. 2, 1856. [G.]
ROSIN (Fr. Colophane), a preparation applied to the hair of the violin bow to give it the neces- sary ' bite ' upon the strings. Without some such agent, the horsehair would slip noiselessly over the catgut. Rosin is the residuary gum of tur- pentine after distillation. The ordinary rosin of commerce is a coarse, hard substance, quite use- less to the fiddler, for whom the rough material undergoes a process of refinement. The ancient English recipe was to boil rough rosin down in vinegar, a process no longer in vogue, as excellent French rosin is now to be had at a very trifling cost. It is prepared by dissolving the rough article in a glazed earthen vessel over a slow charcoal fire. As it melts, it is strained through coarse canvas into a second vessel also kept at a moderate heat, from which it is poured into paste- board or metal moulds. The process requires some delicacy of eye and hand, and the greatest care in handling so inflammable a material, and is usually entrusted to women . Some players affect to prefer the rosin of Gand, others that of Vuillaume, but both are made of the same material and at the same factory. Rosin should be transparent, of a darkish yellow colour in the mass, and quite white when pulverised : it ought to fall from the bow, when first applied to the strings, in a very fine white dust : when crushed between the fingers it ought not to feel sticky. The best rosin is made from Venetian turpentine. The same sort of rosin serves for the violin, viola, and violoncello. The double-bass bow requires a stifier preparation than pure rosin, and accordingly double-bass rosin is made of ordinary rosin and white pitch in equal proportions. Emery powder and other matters are sometimes added in the composition of rosin, but are quite unnecessary, and even in- jurious to the tone. A liquid rosin, applied to the bow with a camel's-hair brush, has recently been invented, and has its advocates. [E. J.P.]
ROSS, JOHN, born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1 764, was placed in his eleventh year under Hawdon, organist of St. Nicholas Church, a dis- ciple of Charles Avison, with whom he studied for seven years. In 1783 he was appointed organist of St. Paul's Chapel, Aberdeen, where he re- mained for half a century. He composed ' An Ode to Charity,' pianoforte concertos and sonatas, songs, canzonets, hymns, waltzes, etc. [ W.H.H.]
ROSSETOR, PHILIP, a lutenist, who in 1601 issued 'A Booke of Ayres, set foorth to be song to the Lute, Orpherian, and Base Violl,' contain- ing 42 songs, the poetry and music of the first 2 1 by Campion, and the rest by Rossetor himself.