passed nearly two years before it was com- [See SOLENNIS.] Instead of it, the ic performed was a Mass in Bb, by Hummel ;
Te Deum' in C, by Preindl ; 'Ecce Sacerdos /this,' by a 'Herr P. v. R.' ; and Haydn's Offertorium in D minor. The orchestra was increased for the occasion to 84 players. What an opportunity was here lost by Beethoven !
Besides the annuity, Rudolph's purse was probably often opened to his master; but the strongest proofs of his respect and affection are to be found in his careful preservation of Bee- thoven's most insignificant letters ; in the zeal with which he collected for his library every- thing published by him; in his purchase of the calligraphic copy of his works 3 made by Haslinger ; and in his patience with him, under circumstances that must often have sadly tried his forbearance. For Beethoven, notwithstand- ing all his obligations to his patron, chafed under the interference with his perfect liberty, which duty to the Archduke-Cardinal occasionally im- posed. There are passages in his letters to Ries and others (suppressed in publication), as well as in the conversation-books, which show how galling even this light yoke was to Beethoven ; and one feels in perusing those addressed to the Archduke how frivolous are some of the excuses for not attending him at the proper hour, and how hollow and insincere are the occasional compliments, as Rudolph must have felt. That Beethoven was pleased to find the Forty Varia- tions dedicated to him by ' his pupil, R. E. H.' (Rudolph Erz-Herzog), was probably the fact ; but it is doubtful whether his satisfaction war- ranted the superlatives in which his letter of thanks is couched. Other letters again breathe throughout nothing but a true and warm affection for his pupil. Kochel sensibly remarks that the trouble lay in Beethoven's 'aversion to the en- forced performance of regular duties, especially to giving lessons, and teaching the theory of music, in which it is well known his strength did not lie, and for which he had to prepare himself.' When the untamed nature of Beethoven, and his deafness, are considered, together with his lack of worldly wisdom and his absolute need of a Maecenas, one feels deeply how fortunate he was to have attracted and retained the sym- pathy and affection of a man of such sweet and tender qualities as Archduke Rudolph.
We can hardly expect an Archduke-Cardinal be a voluminous composer, but the Forty
ariations already mentioned, and a sonata for
F. and clarinet, composed for Count Ferdinand Troyer, both published by Haslinger, are good specimens of his musical talents and acquirements. He was for many years the 'protector' of the great ' Society of the Friends of Music ' at Vienna, and bequeathed to it his very valuable musical library. He was also extremely fond of engraving, and several copper plates designed and engraved
i Beethoven announces its completion In a letter to the Archduke Feb. 27, 1822.
- These, a splendid series of red folio volumes, beautifully copied.
are conspicuous in the Library of the Gesellschaft der Muslkfreunde Vienna.
��Concerto for PF. and Orchestra, No. 4, In Q (op. 56).
Do., do., No. 5, in Eb (op. 73).
Sonata for FF. solo, ' Les Adieus, L' Absence, et le Betour,' in Eb (op. 81 a).
PF. arrangement of Fidelio (op. 726).
Sonata for PF. and Cello, In G (op. 96).
��by him have been preserved to testify to very considerable taste and skill in that art.
A son of his, for thirty years past a well- known contributor to the German musical pe- riodical press, still living (1881), possesses an oil portrait of his father. It shows a rather intellectual face, of the Hapsburg type, but its peculiarities so softened as to be more than or- dinarily pleasing, and even handsome. 3
The Archduke's published works are the two alluded to above : Theme by L. van Beethoven, with 40 variations for PF. solo (Haslinger) ; Sonata for PF. and clarinet, op. 2, in A (Has- linger).
Those dedicated to him by Beethoven are as follows a noble assemblage
Trio for PF.. V., and Cello, in Bb (op. OT).
Grand Sonata for the Hammer- klavier. In Bb (op. 106).
Mlssa Solennis. in D (op. 123).
Grand Fugue for Quartet (op. 33), and 4-hand arrangement of ante.
Song, 'Gedenke niein. 1
RUDORFF, ERNST, was born in Berlin Jan. 1 8, 1840; his family was of Hanoverian ex- traction. At the age of five he received his first musical instruction from the daughter of Pro- fessor Lichtenstein and god-daughter of C. M. von Weber, an excellent pianist and of a thoroughly poetical nature. From his twelfth to his seven- teenth year he was a pupil of Bargiel in PF. playing and composition. A song and a PF. piece composed at this period he afterwards thought worthy of publication (Op. 2, No. I ; Op. 10, No. 4). For a short time in 1858 he had the advantage of PF. lessons from Mme. Schumann, and from his twelfth to his fourteenth year learned the violin under Louis Ries. At Easter, 1857, he entered the first class of the Friedrichs Gymnasium, whence at Easter, 1859, he passed to the Berlin university. During the' whole of this time his thoughts were bent on the musical profession. When Joachim visited Berlin in 1852 Rudorff had played before him, and had made such a favourable impression that Joachim advised his being allowed to follow the musical profession. His father was at first op- posed to this, but at length consented that he should go at Michaelmas, 1 859, and attend the Conservatorium and the University at Leipzig. After two terms of theology and history he devoted himself exclusively to music, and on leaving the Conservatorium at Easter, 1861, continued his musical studies for a year under Hauptmann and Reinecke. The summer of 1862 he passed at Bonn, and returned to Berlin without any fixed employment beyond that of cultivating his musical ability. Stockhausen was then conductor of a choral society at Hamburg. Rudorff went to him early in 1864, conducted those of the Society's concerts in which Stock- hausen himself sang, and finally made concert tours with him. In 1865 he became professor at
> For a more detailed notice see the ' Musical World ' April 2, 1881.