Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/252

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240

��SCARLATTI.

��published one book of 30 pieces, entitled ' Eser- cizii per gravicembalo,' etc., printed according to Burney in Venice, but at any rate before Aug. 1 746, when the Prince of the Asturias, whose n;ime is on the title-page, ascended the throne. In the Fdtis collection is a Paris edition, ' Pieces pour le clave9in,' 2 vols., published by Mme. Boivin (who died Sept. 1733) and Le Clerc. 1 ' 42 Suits 8 of Lessons' were printed by B. Cooke, London, under the supervision of Scarlatti's friend Eoseingrave (between 1730 and 1737, when Roseingrave went out of his mind). Czerny's edition (Haslinger, Vienna, 1839), con- taining 200 pieces, was re-edited (Paris, Sauer, Girod) and revised by Mme. Farrenc from Rosein- grave's edition, and MSS. then in possession of Rimbault. There are also 130 pieces in Far- renc's 'Tremor des Pianistes' (1864) ; 60 Sonatas are published by Breitkopf; and 18 pieces, grouped as Suites by von Billow, by Peters.

Though the technique of pianoforte -pi ay ing owes so much to Domenico Scarlatti, he did nothing towards the development of the sonata.

There seem to have been other musicians of this name, as Mr. Haberl of Ratisbon saw in Rome a melodrama 'Agnus occisus ab origine Mundi,' signed Francesco Scarlatti, and there is at Monte Cassino a score by Pietro Scarlatti, Clitarro,' with intermezzi by Hasse. [F. G.]

SCARLATTI, GIUSEPPE, grandson of Ales- sandro, born at Naples 1712. Of his artistic life but little is known. He settled in Vienna in 1757, up to which date he had produced the following operas : ' Pompeo in Armenio ' (Rome, 1747) ; ' AdrianoinSiria' (Naples, 1752) ; ' Ezio' (Ib. 1 754) ; ' Gli effetti della gran Madre Natura' (Venice, 1754); 'Merope' (Naples, 1755); 'Chi tutto abbraccia nulla stringe' (Venice, 1756). In Vienna he brought out eight more at the court theatre : 'II rnercato di malmantile,' and 'L'isola disabitata' (1757); 'La serva scaltra' (1759); 'Issipile' and 'La Clemenza di Tito' (1760); 'Artaserse' (1763); 'Gli stravaganti' (1765); 'La moglie padrona' (1768). He died at Vienna Aug. 17, 1777. [C.F.P.]

SCENA (Gr. 2*771/77 ; Lat. Scena ; Ital. Scena, Teatro, Palco ; Ger. Buhne, Auftritt ; Fr. Scene, Thedtre ; Eng. Scene, Stage). A term, which, in its oldest and fullest significance, applies equally to the Stage, to the Scenery it represents, and to the Dramatic Action which takes place upon it. Hence, the long array of synonyms placed at the beginning of this article.

I. Classical authors most frequently use the word in its first sense, as applying to that part of a Greek or Roman Theatre which most nearly answers to what we should now call the Stage ; and the classical tendencies of the Renaissance movement led to its similar use in the i6th cen- tury. Thus, in Peri's 'Euridice,' printed in 1600, we find the following direction : ' Tirsi viene in Scena, sonando la presente Zinfonia con un Tri- flauto ' ' Thyrsis comes upon the Stage, playing

1 No. 10 in vol. ii. is an organ fugue by Alessandro Scarlatti. a Which are not ' Suites,' but single movements.

��SCENA.

the present Symphony upon a Triple Flute. [See OPERA.]

II. In its second sense, the word is commonly applied, in England, to those divisions of a Drama which are marked by an actual change of Scenery ; a method of arrangement which is even extended to English translations of foreign works.

III. In the Italian, German, and French The- atres, the word is more frequently used, in its third sense, to designate those subordinate divi- sions of an Act 3 which are marked by the entrance, or exit, of one or more members of the 'Dramatis personae'; a new Scene being always added to the list, when a new Character appears upon, or quits the Stage, though it be only a Messenger, with half-a-dozen words to say, or sing. The ostensible number of Scenes, there- fore, in an Italian, or German Opera, is always far greater than that indicated in an English version of the same work. For instance, in the original Libretto of 'Der Freischiitz' 7 Scenes are enumerated in the First Act, 6 in the Second, and 1 7 in the Third ; whereas the popular English translation only recognises i in Act I, 2 in Act II, and 3 in Act III. An attempt to intro- duce the Continental practice to the English Theatre was made, some years ago, in the col- lection of Operas called 'The Standard Lyric Drama ' (Boosey & Co.) ; and, as it has been revived in the excellent 8vo editions now pub- lishing by Messrs. Novello, it is to be hoped that uniformity of custom may be eventually esta- blished, at least in all translated works.

IV. In a more limited sense, the term Scena is applied, by Operatic Composers, to an Accom- paniedRecitative, either interspersed with passages of Rhythmic Melody, or followed by a regular Aria. In the former case, the word is generally used alone and always in its Italian form : in the latter the Composition is sometimes called 'Scena ed Aria.' Less frequently, the place of pure Recitative is supplied by the introduction of short strains of Melody, with strongly-marked variations of Tempo. But, in all cases, it is de rigueur that the character of the Composition should be essentially and unmistakably dra- matic throughout. The Scena, thus defined, is as old as the Opera itself; for the name might very well be given to the Scene from ' Euridice, ' already alluded to; or to the 'Lamento' in Monteverde's 'Ariana.' A very fine example, much in advance of its age, will be found in

  • Ah rendimi quel core,' from Francesco Rossi's

' Mitrane ' (1688). Handel used the Scena, with telling effect, both in Opera and Oratorio ; as in 'Solitudini amate,' in 'Alessandro'; 'II poter quelche brami,' in 'Scipio,' and 'Deeper and deeper still' and 'Farewell ye limpid streams,' in 'Jephtha.' Mozart's peculiar aptitude for this kind of Composition is well exemplified in his wonderful Scena for two Voices, ' Die Weise- lehre dieser Knaben,' in 'Die Zauberflote' ; in innumerable delightful instances in his other Operas ; and in a large collection of detached

Ital. Atto ; Fr. Aete ; Ger. Aufzug In allusion to the raising of the curtain.

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