��to him, under whom he studied and to whom he became greatly attached. In 1768 he was for- tunate enough to travel in France, Italy, and Germany under good auspices. In 1773 he re- turned to Berlin, and found his old master and Sulzer at work on their Theory of the Fine Arts,' and undertook the musical portion of it from S to the end. He was also Capellmeister to the French theatre at Berlin, and afterwards to the private theatre of the Crown Princess at Berlin and that of Prince Henry at Reinsberg, where he stayed for 7 years from April I, 1780. His choruses to 'Athalia,' produced while there, were translated and brought out at Copenhagen, and the result was an offer from the King of Denmark to be his Capellmeister at a salary of 2000 thalers. This he accepted and held for 8 years with great credit and advantage to the place. His health at length obliged him to leave, and he departed, Sept. 29, 1795, for Ham- burg, Llineburg, and Berlin. He lost his wife, and at length, on June 10, 1800, died at Schwedt deeply and widely lamented. Schulz was a prolific composer ; 10 operas and 3 large sacred works are quoted by Fetis and Mendel, various PF. compositions and some literary works, in- cluding a treatise on a new mode of writing music. He also edited Kirnberger's True Prin- ciples of Harmony. But his true claim to notice rests on his songs. He was the first to give the Volkslied an artistic turn, and in fact took the first step which led to Schubert. He was very careful to get good words, and as a considerable move was taking place among the poets at that date (17 70-80), and Biirger,Claudius, Holty, and others were writing, he had good op- portunities, and many of his settings were pub- lished in the Gottingen ' Musenalmanach ' and Voss's ' Almanach.' He published also ' Lieder in Volkston bey dem Klavier zu singen' (1782), containing 48 songs, 2nd ed. 1 785 in 2 parts, and a 3rd part in 1790. His songs were very much sung for years after their appearance, and are even still the delight of schoolboys, a great tribute to their freshness and melody. (See Reissmann, Gesch. d. Deutschen Liedes, 149.) [G.]
SCHULZE, J. F. AND SONS, a firm of organ- builders, whose founder, J. F. Schulze, was born at Milbitz-bei-Paulinzella, Thuringia, in 1794, and began his manufactory there in 1825. His first organs were for Horba (with 10 stops), and Milbitz (21 stops). In 1825 he moved to Paul- inzella, where his business largely increased. At this period his principal organs were those for Bremen cathedral, and Solingen. In 1851, the firm then J. F. Schulze and Sons sent an organ to the International Exhibition in Hyde Park, which obtained a prize medal and was the beginning of much work done for England. This is now in the Town Hall, Northampton. In 1854 they built the great organ in the Mari- enkirche at Lubeck. J. F. Schulze died in 1858, but was succeeded by his three sons, the most distinguished of whom was Heinrich Edmund, who introduced many new and valuable improve- ments. On the rebuilding of the parish church
of Doncaster, England, after the fire in 1853, the construction of the organ was entrusted to the Schulze firm, and it proved a very great success. Besides this fine instrument, their most import- ant organs are in Bremen, Diisseldorf, Sbst, and Aplerbeck. H. E. Schulze died in 1878 at the age of 54, and shortly after, on the death of the surviving brother, the firm ceased to exist.
The Schulzes' organs are most celebrated for their flue-pipes, which are constructed so as to admit as much wind as possible. In order to do this the feet are opened very wide, and the pipes are in consequence cut up unusually high. By this means, with a comparatively low pressure of wind an extraordinarily rich quantity of tone is produced. The Schulzes carried the same prin- ciples into their wooden flute pipes. Their organs are also celebrated for their string-toned stops, but the drawback in all of these is a cer- tain slowness in their speech. Besides the organs at Doncaster and Northampton, the Schulzes have instruments in England at churches at Armley ; Leeds (in conjunction with Hill) ; Hin- dley, Wigan; Tyne Dock, South Shields ; Harro- gate; also at Northampton Town Hall; Charter- house School, Godalming; Seaton Carew (Thos. Walker, Esq.). They were also employed by Mr. Hopkins to make some alterations and ad- ditions to the organ in the Temple church, London. [W.B.S.]
SCHUMANN, ROBERT ALEXANDER, born June 8, 1810, at Zwickau in Saxony, was the youngest son of Friedrich August Gottlob Schumann (born 1 773), a bookseller, whose father was a clergyman in Saxony, and whose mother, Johanna Christiana (born 1771), was the daughter of Herr Schnabel, Rathschirurgus (surgeon to the town council) at Zeitz. Schumann cannot have received any in- citement towards music from his parents ; his father, however, took a lively interest in the belles lettres, and was himself known as an author. He promoted his son's leanings towards art in every possible way, with which however his mother seems to have had no sympathy. In the small provincial town where Schumann spent the first eighteen years of his life there was no musician capable of helping him beyond the mere rudiments of the art. There was a talented town-musician, who for several decades was the best trumpeter in the district, 1 but, as was commonly the case, he practised his art simply as a trade. The organist of the Marienkirche, J. G. Kuntzsch, Schumann's first pianoforte teacher, after a few years declared that his pupil was able to progress alone, and that his instruction might cease. He was so impressed with the boy's talent, that when Schumann subsequently resolved to devote himself wholly to art, Kuntzsch prophesied that he would attain to fame and immortality, and that in him the world would possess one of its. greatest musicians. Some twenty years later, in 1845, Schumann dedicated to him his Studies for the Pedal-Piano, op. 56. [See vol. ii. p. 770.]
His gift for music showed itself early. He
i Schumann's ' Gesammelte Schriften,' ii. 126 (1st ed.)