Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/438

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426 SCHWARZSPANIERHAUS.

The street which runs directly back from the centre of the Schwarzspanierhaus now bears the composer's name. [A.W.T.]

SCIOLTO, CON SCIOLTEZZA, 'freely'; an expression used in nearly the same sense as ad libitum, but generally applied to longer passages, or even to whole movements. It is also applied to a fugue in a free style. Thus what Beethoven, in the last movement of the Sonata in Bb, op. 106, calls ' Fuga, con alcune licenze,' might otherwise be called ' Fuga sciolta.' [J.A.F.M.]

SCORDATUKA (mis-tuning). A term used to designate some abnormal tunings of the violin which are occasionally employed to produce par- ticular effects. The scordatura originated in the lute and viol, which were tuned in various ways to suit the key of the music. Their six strings being commonly tuned by fourths, with one third in the middle, the third was shifted as occasion required, and an additional third or a fifth was introduced elsewhere, so as to yield on the open strings as many harmonies as possible : in old lute music the proper tuning is indicated at the beginning of the piece. This practice survives in the guitar. The normal tuning being as at (a), very striking effects in the key of E major, for instance, may be produced by tuning the instrument as at (6). The scordatura was formerly

���often employed on the violin, (i) The tuning (c) is extremely favourable to simplicity of fingering in the key of A. It is employed by Tartini in one of his solos, and by Castrucci in a well-known fugue : its effect is noisy and monotonous. It is frequently employed by Scotch reel-players, and in their hands has a singularly rousing effect. The following strain from ' Kilrack's Reel ' is a specimen :

�� ��The reel called ' Appin House ' and the lively Strathspey called 'Anthony Murray's Reel' are played in the same tuning. (2) The tuning (d) employed by Biber, is a modification of (a), a fourth being substituted for a fifth on the first string: and (3) the tuning (e) also employed by Biber, is a similar modification of the normal tuning by fifths. In these tunings the viol fin- gering must be used on the first strings. (4) The tuning (/) employed by Nardini in his Enigmatic Sonata, is the reverse of the last, being a combination of the common tuning for the first two strings with the viol tuning in the lower ones. (5) The tuning (g) is employed by Barbella in his ' Serenade ' and by Campagnoli in his 'Notturno,' to imitate the Viola d'amore,

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from the four middle strings of which ; t is copied. Thick first and second strings should be used, and the mute put on. The effect is singularly pleasing : but the G and A on the second string are flat and dull. (6) The tuning (k) employed by Lolli, is the normal tuning except the fourth string, which is tuned an octave below the third. If a very stout fourth string is used, a good bass accompaniment is thus obtainable.

Such are a few of the abnormal tunings em- ployed by the old violinists. The scordatura is seldom used by modern players except on the fourth string, which is often tuned a tone higher, as at (i). (De Beriot, Mazas, Prume, etc.) This device may always be employed where the composition does not descend below A ; the tone is much increased, and in some keys, especially D and A, execution is greatly facilitated. Paganini tuned his fourth string higher still, as at (j) and (&), with surprising effect : the Bb tuning

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��was a favourite one with De Beriot. Paganini's tuning in flats (L) cannot be called scordatura, as it consists in elevating the violin generally by half a tone, for the sake of brilliancy. The same device was employed by Spohr in his duets for harp and violin, the harp part being written in flats a semitone higher. The fourth string is rarely lowered : but Baillot sometimes tuned it a semitone lower, as at (m), to facilitate arpeggios in the sharp keys.

The scordatura (n) is employed by Bach in his fifth sonata for the violoncello. It corre- sponds to the violin tuning (d). This de- pression of the first string, if a thick string be used, is not unfavourable to sonority. When the scordatura is used, suitable strings should be obtained. Thicker ones are necessary where the pitch is depressed, and thinner ones where it is elevated : and the player will find it best to keep a special instrument for any tuning which he frequently employs. [E. J.P.]

SCORE (Lat. Partitio, Partitura, Partitura cancellata ; Ital. Partitura, Partizione, Partitino, Sparta, Spartita; Fr. Partition; Germ.Partitur). A series of Staves, on which the Vocal or Instru- mental Parts of a piece of concerted Music are written, one above another, in such order as may best enable the whole to be read at a glance.

The English word, Score, is derived from the practice of dividing the Music into bars, by lines, drawn or scoredthrough the entire series of Staves, from top to bottom. The custom of writing each Part on a separate Stave sufficiently accounts for the derivation of the Latin Partitio, which forms the root of the modern Italian, Ger- man, and French terms all equally applicable to a barred, or unbarred Score. But the term Partitura cancellata, applied to a barred Score- only, owes its origin to the appearance of lattice-

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